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Criminal Defense

If you have been arrested or accused of a crime in Shreveport, Bossier City, or anywhere else in
Louisiana, you are probably scared, confused, and worried about your future and that of your
family. Call criminal defense lawyer Jean-Paul “J.P.” Guidry.

You need someone to guide you through the legal system. Having a criminal defense lawyer on
your side can calm your fears. And having good legal representation can often result in
reduction of charges, dismissals, or acquittals at trial.

J.P. is a dedicated criminal defense lawyer helping those faced with all types of crimes:

  • Assault battery
  • Auto theft
  • Bond hearings
  • Burglary
  • Cocaine crimes
  • Crimes in a drug free zone
  • Criminal law
  • Domestic violence
  • Drug charges
  • Drug distribution
  • Drug possession

  • Drunk driving
  • DUI/DWI
  • Exotic drug crimes
  • Expungements
  • Felonies
  • Fraud
  • Grand theft
  • Hit and run
  • Homicide
  • Illegal gun possession
  • Manslaughter

  • Marijuana possession
  • Marijuana distribution
  • Marijuana crimes
  • Misdemeanors
  • Murder
  • Probation Violations
  • Robbery
  • Shoplifting
  • Stalking
  • Theft
  • White-collar crime

criminal defense

Anyone who is arrested should REMAIN SILENT!

Police officers are trained to investigate crimes and gather evidence to build a case against you.
Still, most people actually give the police the evidence needed to convict themselves through
confessions and other statements.

While you should always cooperate with law enforcement, it is important to do so in a controlled
setting and in the presence of your criminal defense lawyer. Sometimes rules are bent and
statements are taken out of context in pursuit of an arrest and conviction.

Do NOT answer any questions asked by the police. Just politely say “I want a lawyer,” and
contact a criminal defense lawyer as soon as possible. Call J.P.

A person charged with a crime is innocent until proven guilty, and the government must prove guilt beyond a reasonable doubt to obtain a conviction.

But people are often pressured into pleading guilty to crimes they did not commit. Sometimes people are even convicted of crimes they did not commit. When facing criminal charges, hire a Shreveport criminal defense lawyer. Call J.P.

Jail time is only one consequence of a criminal conviction.

Being accused of a crime is one of the most serious problems a person can face in their lifetime. When faced with criminal charges, people are usually most concerned about jail time. But criminal convictions can also affect your current and future employment, as well as your educational opportunities.

Criminal convictions can affect your family relationships and overall community reputation.
Criminal convictions can also affect your right to bear arms.

Even misdemeanor convictions can result in jail time or be used to enhance penalties for other offenses.

Don’t face criminal prosecution without a skilled criminal defense lawyer on your side. Call J.P.

Don’t be intimated by the system.

Don’t wait until it’s too late to defend yourself. Don’t let a criminal conviction haunt you for the rest of your life.

Talk to a criminal defense lawyer now. Learn your options. Take back control of your situation.

Jean-Paul Guidry is a Shreveport criminal defense lawyer. Don’t get lost in the system. Call J.P. today for a free consultation.

La. R.S. 14:36 – Assault Defined

Assault is an attempt to commit a battery, or the intentional placing of another in reasonable apprehension of receiving a battery.

La. R.S. 14:38 – Simple Assault

Simple assault is an assault committed without a dangerous weapon.
Whoever commits a simple assault shall be fined not more than two hundred dollars, or imprisoned for not more than ninety days, or both.

La. R.S. 14:37 – Aggravated Assault

A. Aggravated assault is an assault committed with a dangerous weapon.

B. Whoever commits an aggravated assault shall be fined not more than one thousand dollars or imprisoned for not more than six months, or both.

C. If the offense is committed upon a store’s or merchant’s employee while the offender is engaged in the perpetration or attempted perpetration of theft of goods, the offender shall be imprisoned for not less than one hundred twenty days without benefit of suspension of sentence nor more than six months and may be fined not more than one thousand dollars.

La. R.S. 14:33 – Battery Defined

Battery is the intentional use of force or violence upon the person of another; or the intentional administration of a poison or other noxious liquid or substance to another.

La. R.S. 14:35 – Simple Battery

Simple battery is a battery committed without the consent of the victim.
Whoever commits a simple battery shall be fined not more than one thousand dollars or imprisoned for not more than six months, or both.

La. R.S. 14:34 – Aggravated Battery

A. Aggravated battery is a battery committed with a dangerous weapon.

B. Whoever commits an aggravated battery shall be fined not more than five thousand dollars, imprisoned with or without hard labor for not more than ten years, or both. At least one year of the sentence imposed shall be served without benefit of parole, probation, or suspension of sentence if the offender knew or should have known that the victim is an active member of the United States Armed Forces or is a disabled veteran and the aggravated battery was committed because of that status.

C. For purposes of this Section, the following words shall have the following meanings:

(1) “Active member of the United States Armed Forces” shall mean an active member of the United States Army, the United States Marine Corps, the United States Navy, the United States Air Force, the United States Coast Guard, or the National Guard.

(2) “Disabled veteran” shall mean a veteran member of the United States Army, the United States Marine Corps, the United States Navy, the United States Air Force, the United States Coast Guard, or the National Guard who is disabled as determined by the United States Department of Veteran Affairs

La. R.S. 14:34.1 – Second Degree Battery

A. Second degree battery is a battery when the offender intentionally inflicts serious bodily injury; however, this provision shall not apply to a medical provider who has obtained the consent of a patient.

B. For purposes of this Section, the following words shall have the following meanings:

(1) “Active member of the United States Armed Forces” shall mean an active member of the United States Army, the United States Marine Corps, the United States Navy, the United States Air Force, the United States Coast Guard, or the National Guard.

(2) “Disabled veteran” shall mean a veteran member of the United States Army, the United States Marine Corps, the United States Navy, the United States Air Force, the United States Coast Guard, or the National Guard who is disabled as determined by the United States Department of Veteran Affairs.

(3) “Serious bodily injury” means bodily injury which involves unconsciousness, extreme physical pain or protracted and obvious disfigurement, or protracted loss or impairment of the function of a bodily member, organ, or mental faculty, or a substantial risk of death.

C. Whoever commits the crime of second degree battery shall be fined not more than two thousand dollars or imprisoned, with or without hard labor, for not more than five years, or both. At least one year of the sentence imposed shall be served without benefit of parole, probation, or suspension of sentence if the offender knew or should have known that the victim is an active member of the United States Armed Forces or is a disabled veteran and the second degree battery was committed because of that status

La. R.S. 14:34.7 – Aggravated Second Degree Battery

A. Aggravated second degree battery is a battery committed with a dangerous weapon when the offender intentionally inflicts serious bodily injury.

B. For purposes of this Section, the following words shall have the following meanings:

(1) “Active member of the United States Armed Forces” shall mean an active member of the United States Army, the United States Marine Corps, the United States Navy, the United States Air Force, the United States Coast Guard, or the National Guard.

(2) “Disabled veteran” shall mean a veteran member of the United States Army, the United States Marine Corps, the United States Navy, the United States Air Force, the United States Coast Guard, or the National Guard who is disabled as determined by the United States Department of Veteran Affairs.

(3) “Serious bodily injury” means bodily injury which involves unconsciousness, extreme physical pain or protracted and obvious disfigurement, or protracted loss or impairment of the function of a bodily member, organ, or mental faculty, or a substantial risk of death.

C. Whoever commits the crime of aggravated second degree battery shall be fined not more than ten thousand dollars or imprisoned, with or without hard labor, for not more than fifteen years, or both. At least one year of the sentence imposed shall be served without benefit of parole, probation, or suspension of sentence if the offender knew or should have known that the victim is an active member of the United States Armed Forces or is a disabled veteran and the aggravated second degree battery was committed because of that status.


La. R.S. 14:67.26 – Theft of a Motor Vehicle

A. Theft of a motor vehicle is the intentional performance of any of the following acts:

(1) The taking of a motor vehicle, which belongs to another, either without the owner’s consent or by means of fraudulent conduct, practices, or representations, with the intention to permanently deprive the owner of the motor vehicle; or

(2) The taking control of a motor vehicle that is lost or mis-delivered under circumstances which provide a means of inquiry as to the true owner, and the person in control of the motor vehicle does not make reasonable efforts to notify or locate the true owner; or

(3) The taking control of a motor vehicle when the person knows or should have known that the motor vehicle has been stolen.

B.(1) A person who alleges that there has been a theft of a motor vehicle shall attest to that fact by signing an affidavit provided by the law enforcement officer or agency which shall indicate that a person who falsely reports a theft of a motor vehicle may be subject to criminal penalties under Subsection E of this Section.

(2) If the affidavit is not taken in person by a law enforcement officer or agency, the person who alleges that the theft of a motor vehicle has occurred shall mail or deliver a signed and notarized affidavit to the appropriate law enforcement agency within seven days.

C.(1) Whoever commits the crime of theft of a motor vehicle when the misappropriation or taking amounts to a sum of one thousand five hundred dollars or more shall be imprisoned, with or without hard labor, for not more than ten years, or may be fined not more than three thousand dollars, or both.

(2) Whoever commits the crime of theft of a motor vehicle when the misappropriation or taking amounts to a sum of five hundred dollars or more but less than one thousand five hundred dollars shall be imprisoned, with or without hard labor, for not more than five years, or may be fined not more than two thousand dollars, or both.

(3) Whoever commits the crime of theft of a motor vehicle when the misappropriation or taking amounts to a sum of less than five hundred dollars shall be imprisoned for not more than six months, or may be fined not more than one thousand dollars, or both.

D. When there has been a misappropriation or taking by a number of distinct acts of the offender, the aggregate of the amount of the misappropriations or takings shall determine the grade of the offense.

E. Whoever commits the crime of filing a false affidavit to support an alleged theft of a motor vehicle shall be imprisoned for not more than five years with or without hard labor or shall be fined not more than five thousand dollars, or both.

La. R.S. 14:62 – Simple Burglary

A. Simple burglary is the unauthorized entering of any dwelling, vehicle, watercraft, or other structure, movable or immovable, or any cemetery, with the intent to commit a felony or any theft therein, other than as set forth in R.S. 14:60.

B. Whoever commits the crime of simple burglary shall be fined not more than two thousand dollars, imprisoned with or without hard labor for not more than twelve years, or both.

La. R.S. 14:60 – Aggravated Burglary

Aggravated burglary is the unauthorized entering of any inhabited dwelling, or of any structure, water craft, or movable where a person is present, with the intent to commit a felony or any theft therein, if the offender,
(1) Is armed with a dangerous weapon; or
(2) After entering arms himself with a dangerous weapon; or
(3) Commits a battery upon any person while in such place, or in entering or leaving such place.

Whoever commits the crime of aggravated burglary shall be imprisoned at hard labor for not less than one nor more than thirty years.

La. R.S. 14:35.3 – Domestic Abuse Battery

A. Domestic abuse battery is the intentional use of force or violence committed by one household member upon the person of another household member.

B. For purposes of this Section:

(1) “Burning” means an injury to flesh or skin caused by heat, electricity, friction, radiation, or any other chemical or thermal reaction.

(2) “Community service activities” as used in this Section may include duty in any morgue, coroner’s office, or emergency treatment room of a state-operated hospital or other state-operated emergency treatment facility, with the consent of the administrator of the morgue, coroner’s office, hospital, or facility.

(3) “Household member” means any person of the opposite sex presently living in the same residence or living in the same residence within five years of the occurrence of the domestic abuse battery with the defendant as a spouse, whether married or not, or any child presently living in the same residence or living in the same residence within five years immediately prior to the occurrence of domestic abuse battery, or any child of the offender regardless of where the child resides.

(4) “Serious bodily injury” means bodily injury that involves unconsciousness, extreme physical pain, or protracted and obvious disfigurement, or protracted loss or impairment of the function of a bodily member, organ, or mental faculty, or a substantial risk of death.

(5) “Strangulation” means intentionally impeding the normal breathing or circulation of the blood by applying pressure on the throat or neck or by blocking the nose or mouth of the victim.

C. On a first conviction, notwithstanding any other provision of law to the contrary, the offender shall be fined not less than three hundred dollars nor more than one thousand dollars and shall be imprisoned for not less than thirty days nor more than six months. At least forty-eight hours of the sentence imposed shall be served without benefit of parole, probation, or suspension of sentence. Imposition or execution of the remainder of the sentence shall not be suspended unless either of the following occur:

(1) The offender is placed on probation with a minimum condition that he serve four days in jail and participate in a court-approved domestic abuse prevention program, and the offender shall not own or possess a firearm throughout the entirety of the sentence.

(2) The offender is placed on probation with a minimum condition that he perform eight, eight-hour days of court-approved community service activities and participate in a court-approved domestic abuse prevention program, and the offender shall not own or possess a firearm throughout the entirety of the sentence.

D. On a conviction of a second offense, notwithstanding any other provision of law to the contrary, regardless of whether the second offense occurred before or after the first conviction, the offender shall be fined not less than seven hundred fifty dollars nor more than one thousand dollars and shall be imprisoned for not less than sixty days nor more than six months. At least fourteen days of the sentence imposed shall be served without benefit of parole, probation, or suspension of sentence, and the offender shall be required to participate in a court-approved domestic abuse prevention program. Imposition or execution of the remainder of the sentence shall not be suspended unless either of the following occur:

(1) The offender is placed on probation with a minimum condition that he serve thirty days in jail and participate in a court-approved domestic abuse prevention program, and the offender shall not own or possess a firearm throughout the entirety of the sentence.

(2) The offender is placed on probation with a minimum condition that he perform thirty eight-hour days of court-approved community service activities and participate in a court-approved domestic abuse prevention program, and the offender shall not own or possess a firearm throughout the entirety of the sentence.

E. On a conviction of a third offense, notwithstanding any other provision of law to the contrary and regardless of whether the offense occurred before or after an earlier conviction, the offender shall be imprisoned with or without hard labor for not less than one year nor more than five years and shall be fined two thousand dollars. The first year of the sentence of imprisonment shall be imposed without benefit of probation, parole, or suspension of sentence.

F.(1) Except as otherwise provided in Paragraph (2) of this Subsection, on a conviction of a fourth or subsequent offense, notwithstanding any other provision of law to the contrary and regardless of whether the fourth offense occurred before or after an earlier conviction, the offender shall be imprisoned with hard labor for not less than ten years nor more than thirty years and shall be fined five thousand dollars. The first three years of the sentence of imprisonment shall be imposed without benefit of probation, parole, or suspension of sentence.

(2) If the offender has previously received the benefit of suspension of sentence, probation, or parole as a fourth or subsequent offender, no part of the sentence may be imposed with benefit of suspension of sentence, probation, or parole, and no portion of the sentence shall be imposed concurrently with the remaining balance of any sentence to be served for a prior conviction for any offense.

G.(1) For purposes of determining whether a defendant has a prior conviction for violation of this Section, a conviction under this Section, or a conviction under the laws of any state or an ordinance of a municipality, town, or similar political subdivision of another state which prohibits the intentional use of force or violence committed by one household member upon another household member of the opposite sex presently or formerly living in the same residence with the defendant as a spouse, whether married or not, shall constitute a prior conviction.

(2) For purposes of this Section, a prior conviction shall not include a conviction for an offense under this Section if the date of completion of sentence, probation, parole, or suspension of sentence is more than ten years prior to the commission of the crime with which the defendant is charged, and such conviction shall not be considered in the assessment of penalties hereunder. However, periods of time during which the offender was incarcerated in a penal institution in this or any other state shall be excluded in computing the ten-year period.

H. An offender ordered to participate in a domestic abuse prevention program required by the provisions of this Section shall pay the cost incurred in participation in the program. Failure to make such payment shall subject the offender to revocation of probation, unless the court determines that the offender is unable to pay.

I. This Subsection shall be cited as the “Domestic Abuse Child Endangerment Law”. When the state proves, in addition to the elements of the crime as set forth in Subsection A of this Section, that a minor child thirteen years of age or younger was present at the residence or any other scene at the time of the commission of the offense, of the sentence imposed by the court, the execution of the minimum mandatory sentence provided by Subsection C or D of this Section, as appropriate, shall not be suspended, the minimum mandatory sentence imposed under Subsection E of this Section shall be two years without suspension of sentence, and the minimum mandatory sentence imposed under Subsection F of this Section shall be four years without suspension of sentence.

J. Any crime of violence, as defined in R.S. 14:2(B), against a person committed by one household member against another household member, shall be designated as an act of domestic violence.

K. If the victim of domestic abuse battery is pregnant and the offender knows that the victim is pregnant at the time of the commission of the offense, the offender, who is sentenced under the provisions of this Section, shall be required to serve a minimum of forty-five days without benefit of suspension of sentence for a first conviction, upon a second conviction shall serve a minimum of one year imprisonment without benefit of suspension of sentence, upon a third conviction shall serve a minimum of two years with or without hard labor without benefit of probation, parole, or suspension of sentence, and upon a fourth and subsequent offense shall serve a minimum of four years at hard labor without benefit of probation, parole, or suspension of sentence.

L. Notwithstanding any other provision of law to the contrary, if the domestic abuse battery involves strangulation, the offender shall be imprisoned at hard labor for not more than three years.

M. Notwithstanding any other provision of law to the contrary, if the domestic abuse battery is committed by burning that results in serious bodily injury, the offense shall be classified as a crime of violence, and the offender shall be imprisoned at hard labor for not less than five nor more than fifty years without benefit of probation, parole, or suspension of sentence.

La. R.S. 14:37.7 – Domestic Abuse Aggravated Assault

A. Domestic abuse aggravated assault is an assault with a dangerous weapon committed by one household member upon another household member.

B. For purposes of this Section, “household member” means any person of the opposite sex presently living in the same residence, or living in the same residence within five years of the occurrence of the domestic abuse aggravated assault, with the defendant as a spouse, whether married or not, or any child presently living in the same residence or living in the same residence within five years immediately prior to the occurrence of the domestic abuse aggravated assault, or any child of the offender regardless of where the child resides.

C. Whoever commits the crime of domestic abuse aggravated assault shall be imprisoned at hard labor for not less than one year nor more than five years and fined not more than five thousand dollars.

D. This Subsection shall be cited as the “Domestic Abuse Aggravated Assault Child Endangerment Law”. When the state proves, in addition to the elements of the crime as set forth in Subsection A of this Section, that a minor child thirteen years of age or younger was present at the residence or any other scene at the time of the commission of the offense, the mandatory minimum sentence imposed by the court shall be two years imprisonment at hard labor without benefit of parole, probation, or suspension of sentence.

La. R.S. 14:98 – Operating a Vehicle While Intoxicated

A.(1) The crime of operating a vehicle while intoxicated is the operating of any motor vehicle, aircraft, watercraft, vessel, or other means of conveyance when:

(a) The operator is under the influence of alcoholic beverages; or

(b) The operator’s blood alcohol concentration is 0.08 percent or more by weight based on grams of alcohol per one hundred cubic centimeters of blood; or

(c) The operator is under the influence of any controlled dangerous substance listed in Schedule I, II, III, IV, or V as set forth in R.S. 40:964; or

(d)(i) The operator is under the influence of a combination of alcohol and one or more drugs which are not controlled dangerous substances and which are legally obtainable with or without a prescription.

(ii) It shall be an affirmative defense to any charge under this Subparagraph pursuant to this Section that the label on the container of the prescription drug or the manufacturer’s package of the drug does not contain a warning against combining the medication with alcohol.

(e)(i) The operator is under the influence of one or more drugs which are not controlled dangerous substances and which are legally obtainable with or without a prescription.

(ii) It shall be an affirmative defense to any charge under this Subparagraph pursuant to this Section that the operator did not knowingly consume quantities of the drug or drugs which substantially exceed the dosage prescribed by the physician or the dosage recommended by the manufacturer of the drug.

(2) A valid driver’s license shall not be an element of the offense, and the lack thereof shall not be a defense to a prosecution for operating a vehicle while intoxicated.

B.(1) On a first conviction, notwithstanding any other provision of law to the contrary, the offender shall be fined not less than three hundred dollars nor more than one thousand dollars, and shall be imprisoned for not less than ten days nor more than six months. Imposition or execution of sentence shall not be suspended unless:

(a) The offender is placed on probation with a minimum condition that he serve two days in jail and participate in a court-approved substance abuse program and participate in a court-approved driver improvement program; or

(b) The offender is placed on probation with a minimum condition that he perform four eight-hour days of court-approved community service activities, at least half of which shall consist of participation in a litter abatement or collection program, participate in a court-approved substance abuse program, and participate in a court-approved driver improvement program. An offender, who participates in a litter abatement or collection program pursuant to this Subparagraph, shall have no cause of action for damages against the entity conducting the program or supervising his participation therein, including a municipality, parish, sheriff, or other entity, nor against any official, employee, or agent of such entity, for any injury or loss suffered by him during or arising out of his participation in the program, if such injury or loss is a direct result of the lack of supervision or act or omission of the supervisor, unless the injury or loss was caused by the intentional or grossly negligent act or omission of the entity or its official, employee, or agent.

(2)(a) If the offender had a blood alcohol concentration of 0.15 percent or more by weight based on grams of alcohol per one hundred cubic centimeters of blood, at least forty-eight hours of the sentence imposed pursuant to Paragraph (B)(1) of this Subsection shall be served without the benefit of parole, probation, or suspension of sentence. Imposition or execution of the remainder of the sentence shall not be suspended unless the offender complies with Subparagraph (B)(1)(a) or (b) of this Subsection.

(b) If the offender had a blood alcohol concentration of 0.20 percent or more by weight based on grams of alcohol per one hundred cubic centimeters of blood, the offender shall be fined not less than seven hundred fifty dollars nor more than one thousand dollars and at least forty-eight hours of the sentence imposed pursuant to Paragraph (B)(1) of this Subsection shall be served without the benefit of parole, probation, or suspension of sentence. Imposition or execution of the remainder of the sentence shall not be suspended unless the offender complies with Subparagraph (B)(1)(a) or (b) of this Subsection.

C.(1) On a conviction of a second offense, notwithstanding any other provision of law to the contrary except as provided in Paragraphs (3) and (4) of this Subsection, regardless of whether the second offense occurred before or after the first conviction, the offender shall be fined not less than seven hundred fifty dollars, nor more than one thousand dollars, and shall be imprisoned for not less than thirty days nor more than six months. At least forty-eight hours of the sentence imposed shall be served without benefit of parole, probation, or suspension of sentence. Nothing herein shall prohibit a court from sentencing a defendant to home incarceration, if otherwise allowed under the provisions of Article 894.2 of the Code of Criminal Procedure. Imposition or execution of the remainder of the sentence shall not be suspended unless:

(a) The offender is placed on probation with a minimum condition that he serve fifteen days in jail and participate in a court-approved substance abuse program and participate in a court-approved driver improvement program; or

(b) The offender is placed on probation with a minimum condition that he perform thirty eight-hour days of court-approved community service activities, at least half of which shall consist of participation in a litter abatement or collection program, and participate in a court-approved substance abuse program, and participate in a court-approved driver improvement program. An offender, who participates in a litter abatement or collection program pursuant to this Subparagraph, shall have no cause of action for damages against the entity conducting the program or supervising his participation therein, including a municipality, parish, sheriff, or other entity, nor against any official, employee, or agent of such entity, for any injury or loss suffered by him during or arising out of his participation therein, if such injury or loss is a direct result of the lack of supervision or act or omission of the supervisor, unless the injury or loss was caused by the intentional or grossly negligent act or omission of the entity or its official, employee, or agent.

(2)(a) If the offender had a blood alcohol concentration of 0.15 percent or more by weight based on grams of alcohol per one hundred cubic centimeters of blood, at least ninety-six hours of the sentence imposed pursuant to Paragraph

(1) of this Subsection shall be served without the benefit of parole, probation, or suspension of sentence. Imposition or execution of the remainder of the sentence shall not be suspended unless the offender complies with Subparagraph (1)(a) or (b) of this Subsection.

(b) If the offender had a blood alcohol concentration of 0.20 percent or more by weight based on grams of alcohol per one hundred cubic centimeters of blood, the offender shall be fined one thousand dollars and at least ninety-six hours of the sentence imposed pursuant to Paragraph (1) of this Subsection shall be served without the benefit of parole, probation, or suspension of sentence. Imposition or execution of the remainder of the sentence shall not be suspended unless the offender complies with Subparagraph (1)(a) or (b) of this Subsection.

(3) Notwithstanding the provisions of Paragraph (1) of this Subsection, on a conviction of a second offense when the first offense was for the crime of vehicular homicide in violation of R.S. 14:32.1, or first degree vehicular negligent injuring in violation of R.S. 14:39.2, the offender shall be imprisoned with or without hard labor for not less than one year nor more than five years, and shall be fined two thousand dollars. At least six months of the sentence of imprisonment imposed shall be without benefit of probation, parole, or suspension of sentence. Imposition or execution of the remainder of the sentence shall not be suspended unless the provisions of Subparagraph (1)(a) or (b) of this Subsection are complied with.

(4) Notwithstanding the provisions of Paragraph (1) of this Subsection, on a conviction of a second offense when the arrest for the second offense occurs within one year of the commission of the first offense, the offender shall be imprisoned for thirty days without benefit of parole, probation, or suspension of sentence and shall participate in a court-approved substance abuse program and in a court-approved driver improvement program.

D.(1)(a) On a conviction of a third offense, notwithstanding any other provision of law to the contrary and regardless of whether the offense occurred before or after an earlier conviction, the offender shall be imprisoned with or without hard labor for not less than one year nor more than five years and shall be fined two thousand dollars. Except as provided in Paragraph (4) of this Subsection, one year of the sentence of imprisonment shall be imposed without benefit of probation, parole, or suspension of sentence. The court, in its discretion, may suspend all or any part of the remainder of the sentence of imprisonment. If any portion of the sentence is suspended, except for a suspension of sentence pursuant to the provisions of Paragraph (4) of this Subsection, the offender shall be placed on supervised probation with the Department of Public Safety and Corrections, division of probation and parole, for a period of time equal to the remainder of the sentence of imprisonment, which probation shall commence on the day after the offender’s release from custody.

(b) Any offender placed on probation pursuant to the provisions of this Subsection shall be required as a condition of probation to participate in thirty eight-hour days of court-approved community service activities and to submit to and complete either of the following requirements:

(i) To immediately undergo an evaluation by the Department of Health and Hospitals, office of behavioral health to determine the nature and extent of the offender’s substance abuse disorder and to participate in any treatment plan recommended by the office of behavioral health, including treatment in an inpatient facility approved by the office for a period of not less than four weeks followed by outpatient treatment services for a period not to exceed twelve months.

(ii) To participate in substance abuse treatment in an alcohol and drug abuse program provided by a drug division subject to the applicable provisions of R.S. 13:5301 et seq. if the offender is otherwise eligible to participate in such program.

(c) In addition to the requirements set forth in Subparagraph (b) of this Paragraph, any offender placed on probation pursuant to the provisions of Subsection D of this Section shall be placed in a home incarceration program approved by the division of probation and parole for a period of time not less than six months and not more than the remainder of the sentence of imprisonment.

(d) If any offender placed on probation pursuant to the provisions of Subsection D of this Section fails to complete the substance abuse treatment required by the provisions of this Paragraph or violates any other condition of probation, including conditions of home incarceration, his probation may be revoked, and he may be ordered to serve the balance of the sentence of imprisonment, without credit for time served under home incarceration.

(2)(a) In addition, the court shall order, subject to the discretion of the prosecuting district attorney, that the vehicle being driven by the offender at the time of the offense shall be seized and impounded, and sold at auction in the same manner and under the same conditions as executions of writ of seizures and sale as provided in Book V, Title II, Chapter 4 of the Code of Civil Procedure. If the district attorney elects to forfeit the vehicle, he shall file a written motion at least five days prior to sentencing stating his intention to forfeit the vehicle. When the district attorney elects to forfeit the vehicle, the court shall order it forfeited.

(b) The vehicle shall be exempt from sale if it was stolen, or if the driver of the vehicle at the time of the violation was not the owner and the owner did not know that the driver was operating the vehicle while intoxicated. If this exemption is applicable, the vehicle shall not be released from impoundment until such time as towing and storage fees have been paid.

(c) In addition, the vehicle shall be exempt from sale if all towing and storage fees are paid by a valid lienholder.

(d) The proceeds of the sale shall first be used to pay court costs and towing and storage costs, and the remainder shall be allocated as follows: sixty percent of the funds shall go to the arresting agency, twenty percent to the prosecuting district attorney, and twenty percent to the Louisiana Property and Casualty Insurance Commission for its use in studying other ways to reduce drunk driving and insurance rates.

(3)(a) An offender sentenced to home incarceration during probation shall be subject to special conditions to be determined by the court, which shall include but not be limited to the following:

(i) Electronic monitoring.

(ii) Curfew restrictions.

(iii) Home visitation at least once per month by the Department of Public Safety and Corrections for the first six months. After the first six months, the level of supervision will be determined by the department based upon a risk assessment instrument.

(b) The court shall also require the offender to obtain employment and to participate in a court-approved driver improvement program at his expense. The activities of the offender outside of his home shall be limited to traveling to and from work, church services, Alcoholics Anonymous meetings, or a court-approved driver improvement program.

(c) Offenders sentenced to home incarceration required under the provisions of this Section shall be subject to all other applicable provisions of Code of Criminal Procedure Article 894.2.

(4) Notwithstanding the provisions of Subparagraph (1)(a) of this Subsection, the one-year period described in Paragraph (1) of this Subsection which shall otherwise be imposed without the benefit of probation, parole, or suspension of sentence, may also be suspended if the offender is accepted into a drug division probation program pursuant to R.S. 13:5301 et seq. The provisions of Paragraph (2) of this Subsection shall also be applicable to any offender whose sentence is served with the benefit of probation, parole, or suspension of sentence pursuant to the provisions of this Paragraph.

E.(1)(a) Except as otherwise provided in Subparagraph (4)(b) of this Subsection, on a conviction of a fourth or subsequent offense, notwithstanding any other provision of law to the contrary and regardless of whether the fourth offense occurred before or after an earlier conviction, the offender shall be imprisoned with or without hard labor for not less than ten years nor more than thirty years and shall be fined five thousand dollars. Except as provided in Paragraph (5) of this Subsection, two years of the sentence of imprisonment shall be imposed without benefit of parole, probation, or suspension of sentence. The court, in its discretion, may suspend all or any part of the remainder of the sentence of imprisonment. If any portion of the sentence is suspended, except for a suspension of sentence pursuant to the provisions of Paragraph (5) of this Subsection, the offender shall be placed on supervised probation with the Department of Public Safety and Corrections, division of probation and parole, for a period of time not to exceed five years, which probation shall commence on the day after the offender’s release from custody.

(b) Any offender placed on probation pursuant to the provisions of this Subsection shall be required, as a condition of probation, to participate in forty eight-hour days of court-approved community service activities and to submit to and complete either of the following requirements:

(i) To immediately undergo an evaluation by the Department of Health and Hospitals, office of behavioral health to determine the nature and extent of the offender’s substance abuse disorder and to participate in any treatment plan recommended by the office of behavioral health, including treatment in an inpatient facility approved by the office for a period of not less than four weeks followed by outpatient treatment services for a period not to exceed twelve months.

(ii) To participate in substance abuse treatment in an alcohol and drug abuse program provided by a drug division subject to the applicable provisions of R.S. 13:5301 et seq. if the offender is otherwise eligible to participate in such program.

(c) In addition to the requirements set forth in Subparagraph (b) of this Paragraph, any offender placed on probation pursuant to the provisions of Subsection E of this Section shall be placed in a home incarceration program approved by the division of probation and parole for a period of time not less than one year nor more than the remainder of the term of supervised probation.

(d) If any offender placed on probation pursuant to the provisions of Subsection E of this Section fails to complete the substance abuse treatment required by the provisions of this Paragraph or violates any other condition of probation, including conditions of home incarceration, his probation may be revoked, and he may be ordered to serve the balance of the sentence of imprisonment, without credit for time served under home incarceration.

(2)(a) In addition, the court shall order, subject to the discretion of the prosecuting district attorney, that the vehicle being driven by the offender at the time of the offense be seized and impounded, and be sold at auction in the same manner and under the same conditions as executions of writ of seizure and sale as provided in Book V, Title II, Chapter 4 of the Code of Civil Procedure. If the district attorney elects to forfeit the vehicle, he shall file a written motion at least five days prior to sentencing stating his intention to forfeit the vehicle.

(b) The vehicle shall be exempt from sale if it was stolen, or if the driver of the vehicle at the time of the violation was not the owner and the owner did not know that the driver was operating the vehicle while intoxicated. If this exemption is applicable, the vehicle shall not be released from impoundment until such time as towing and storage fees have been paid.

(c) In addition, the vehicle shall be exempt from sale if all towing and storage fees are paid by a valid lienholder.

(d) The proceeds of the sale shall first be used to pay court costs and towing and storage costs, and the remainder shall be allocated as follows: sixty percent of the funds shall go to the arresting agency, twenty percent to the prosecuting district attorney, and twenty percent to the Louisiana Property and Casualty Insurance Commission for its use in studying other ways to reduce drunk driving and insurance rates.

(3)(a) An offender sentenced to home incarceration during probation shall be subject to special conditions to be determined by the court, which shall include but not be limited to the following:

(i) Electronic monitoring.

(ii) Curfew restrictions.

(iii) Home visitation at least once per month by the Department of Public Safety and Corrections for the first six months. After the first six months, the level of supervision will be determined by the department based upon a risk assessment instrument.

(b) The court shall also require the offender to obtain employment and to participate in a court-approved driver improvement program at his expense. The activities of the offender outside of his home shall be limited to traveling to and from work, church services, Alcoholics Anonymous meetings, or a court-approved driver improvement program.

(c) Offenders sentenced to home incarceration required under the provisions of this Section shall be subject to all other applicable provisions of Code of Criminal Procedure Article 894.2.

(4)(a) If the offender has previously been required to participate in substance abuse treatment and home incarceration pursuant to Subsection D of this Section, the offender shall not be sentenced to substance abuse treatment and home incarceration for a fourth or subsequent offense, but shall be imprisoned at hard labor for not less than ten nor more than thirty years, and at least three years of the sentence shall be imposed without benefit of suspension of sentence, probation, or parole.

(b) If the offender has previously received the benefit of suspension of sentence, probation, or parole as a fourth offender, after serving the mandatory sentence required by Subparagraph (E)(1)(a), no part of the remainder of the sentence may be imposed with benefit of suspension of sentence, probation, or parole, and no portion of the sentence shall be imposed concurrently with the remaining balance of any sentence to be served for a prior conviction for any offense.

(5)(a) Notwithstanding the provisions of Subparagraph (1)(a) of this Subsection, the two-year period described in Paragraph (1) of this Subsection which shall otherwise be imposed without the benefit of parole, probation, or suspension of sentence may also be suspended if the offender is accepted into a drug division probation program pursuant to R.S. 13:5301 et seq. The provisions of Paragraph (2) of this Subsection shall also be applicable to any offender whose sentence is served with the benefit of probation, parole, or suspension of sentence pursuant to the provisions of this Subparagraph.

(b) If the offender has previously participated in a drug division probation program pursuant to the provisions of Paragraph (D)(4) of this Section, the offender shall not be eligible to serve his sentence with the benefit of probation, parole, or suspension of sentence pursuant to the provisions of Subparagraph (a) of this Paragraph, but shall be imprisoned at hard labor for not less than ten nor more than thirty years, and at least three years of the sentence shall be imposed without benefit of suspension of sentence, probation, or parole.

F.(1) For purposes of determining whether a defendant has a prior conviction for violation of this Section, a conviction under either R.S. 14:32.1, vehicular homicide, R.S. 14:39.1, vehicular negligent injuring, or R.S. 14:39.2, first degree vehicular negligent injuring, or a conviction under the laws of any state or an ordinance of a municipality, town, or similar political subdivision of another state, which prohibits the operation of any motor vehicle, aircraft, watercraft, vessel, or other means of conveyance while intoxicated, while impaired, or while under the influence of alcohol, drugs, or any controlled dangerous substance shall constitute a prior conviction. This determination shall be made by the court as a matter of law.

(2) For purposes of this Section, a prior conviction shall not include a conviction for an offense under this Section, under R.S. 14:32.1, R.S. 14:39.1, or R.S. 14:39.2, or under a comparable statute or ordinance of another jurisdiction, as described in Paragraph (1) of this Subsection, if committed more than ten years prior to the commission of the crime for which the defendant is being tried and such conviction shall not be considered in the assessment of penalties hereunder. However, periods of time during which the offender was awaiting trial, on probation or parole for an offense described in Paragraph (1) of this Subsection, under an order of attachment for failure to appear, or incarcerated in a penal institution in this or any other state shall be excluded in computing the ten-year period.

G. The legislature hereby finds and declares that conviction of a third or subsequent DWI offense is presumptive evidence of the existence of a substance abuse disorder in the offender posing a serious threat to the health and safety of the public. Further, the legislature finds that there are successful treatment methods available for treatment of addictive disorders. Court-approved substance abuse programs provided for in Subsections B, C, and D of this Section shall include a screening procedure to determine the portions of the program which may be applicable and appropriate for individual offenders and shall assess the offender’s degree of alcohol abuse.

H. “Community service activities” as used in this Section may include duty in any morgue, coroner’s office, or emergency treatment room of a state-operated hospital or other state-operated emergency treatment facility, with the consent of the administrator of the morgue, coroner’s office, hospital, or facility.

I. An offender ordered to participate in a substance abuse program in accordance with the provisions of this Section shall pay the cost incurred in participating in the program. Failure to make such payment shall subject the offender to revocation of probation, unless the court determines that the offender is unable to pay. If the court determines that the offender is unable to pay, the state shall pay for the cost of the substance abuse treatment. An offender sentenced to home incarceration and to participate in a driver improvement program shall pay the cost incurred in participating in home incarceration and a driver improvement program unless the court determines that the offender is unable to pay. However, if the court determines that an offender is unable to pay the costs incurred for participating in a substance abuse treatment program, driver improvement program, or home incarceration, the court may, upon completion of such program or home incarceration, require that the offender reimburse the state for all or a portion of such costs pursuant to a payment schedule determined by the court.

J. This Subsection shall be cited as the “Child Endangerment Law”. When the state proves in addition to the elements of the crime as set forth in Subsection A of this Section that a minor child twelve years of age or younger was a passenger in the motor vehicle, aircraft, watercraft, vessel, or other means of motorized conveyance at the time of the commission of the offense, of the sentence imposed by the court, the execution of the minimum mandatory sentence provided by Subsection B or C of this Section, as appropriate, shall not be suspended. If imprisonment is imposed pursuant to the provisions of Subsection D, the execution of the minimum mandatory sentence shall not be suspended. If imprisonment is imposed pursuant to the provisions of Subsection E, at least two years of the sentence shall be imposed without benefit of suspension of sentence.

K.(1) In addition to any penalties imposed under this Section, upon conviction of a first offense if the offender had a blood alcohol concentration of 0.20 percent or more by weight based on grams of alcohol per one hundred cubic centimeters of blood the driver’s license of the offender shall be suspended for two years. Such offender may apply for a restricted license to be in effect during the entire period of suspension upon proof to the Department of Public Safety and Corrections that his motor vehicle has been equipped with a functioning ignition interlock device in compliance with the requirements of R.S. 32:378.2. The ignition interlock device shall remain installed and operative on his vehicle during the first twelve-month period of suspension of his driver’s license following the date of conviction.

(2)(a) In addition to any penalties imposed under this Section, upon conviction of a second offense, any vehicle, while being operated by the offender, shall be equipped with a functioning ignition interlock device in accordance with the provisions of R.S. 15:306. This requirement shall remain in effect for a period of not less than six months. In addition, the device shall remain installed and operative during any period that the offender’s operator’s license is suspended under law and for any additional period as determined by the court.

(b) In addition to any penalties imposed under this Section and notwithstanding the provisions of Subparagraph (2)(a) of this Subsection, upon conviction of a second offense if the offender had a blood alcohol concentration of 0.20 percent or more by weight based on grams of alcohol per one hundred cubic centimeters of blood, the driver’s license of the offender shall be suspended for four years. The offender may apply for a restricted license to be in effect during the period of suspension upon proof to the Department of Public Safety and Corrections that his motor vehicle has been equipped with a functioning ignition interlock device in compliance with the requirements of R.S. 32:378.2. The ignition interlock device shall remain installed and operative on his vehicle during the first three years of the four-year period of the suspension of his driver’s license.

(3)(a) Notwithstanding the provisions of Paragraph (1) of this Subsection and R.S. 32:414(D)(1)(b), upon conviction of a third or subsequent offense of the provisions of this Section, any motor vehicle, while being operated by the offender, shall be equipped with a functioning ignition interlock device in accordance with the provisions of R.S. 15:306. The ignition interlock device shall remain installed and operative until the offender has completed the requirements of substance abuse treatment and home incarceration, or, if applicable, the requirements of the drug division probation program provided in R.S. 13:5301 et seq., pursuant to the provisions of Subsections D and E of this Section.

(b) Any offender convicted of a third or subsequent offense of the provisions of this Section shall, after one year of the suspension required by R.S. 32:414(D)(1)(a), upon proof of the Department of Public Safety and Corrections that the motor vehicles being operated by the offender are equipped with functioning interlock devices, be issued a restricted driver’s license. The restricted license shall be effective for the period of time that the offender’s driver’s license is suspended. The restricted license shall entitle the offender to operate the vehicles equipped with a functioning interlock device in order to earn a livelihood and to travel to and from the places designated in Paragraphs (D)(3) and (E)(3) of this Section.

(4) The provisions of this Subsection shall not require installation of an ignition interlock device in any vehicle described in R.S. 32:378.2(I).

La. R.S. 14:98.2 – Unlawful Refusal to Submit to Chemical Tests

A. No person under arrest for a violation of R.S. 14:98, 98.1, or any other law or ordinance which prohibits operating a vehicle while intoxicated may refuse to submit to a chemical test when requested to do so by a law enforcement officer if he has refused to submit to such test on two previous and separate occasions of any previous such violation.

B.(1) Whoever violates the provisions of this Section shall be fined not less than three hundred dollars nor more than one thousand dollars, and shall be imprisoned for not less than ten days nor more than six months.

(2) Imposition or execution of sentence shall not be suspended unless one of the following circumstances occurs:

(a) The offender is placed on probation with a minimum condition that he serve two days in jail and participate in a court-approved substance abuse program and participate in a court-approved driver improvement program.

(b) The offender is placed on probation with a minimum condition that he perform four eight-hour days of court-approved community service activities, at least half of which shall consist of participation in a litter abatement or collection program, participate in a court-approved substance abuse program, and participate in a court-approved driver improvement program. An offender who participates in a litter abatement or collection program pursuant to this Subparagraph shall have no cause of action for damages against the entity conducting the program or supervising his participation therein, including a municipality, parish, sheriff, or other entity, nor against any official, employee, or agent of such entity, for any injury or loss suffered by him during or arising out of his participation in the program, if such injury or loss is a direct result of the lack of supervision or act or omission of the supervisor, unless the injury or loss was caused by the intentional or grossly negligent act or omission of the entity or its official, employee, or agent.

La. C.Cr. P. art. 972

As used in this Title:

(1) “Expunge a record” means to remove a record of arrest or conviction, photographs, fingerprints, disposition, or any other information of any kind from public access pursuant to the provisions of this Title. “Expunge a record” does not mean destruction of the record.

(2) “Expungement by redaction” provides for the expungement of records of a person who is arrested or convicted with other persons who are not entitled to expungement and involves the removal of the name or any other identifying information of the person entitled to the expungement and otherwise retains the records of the incident as they relate to the other persons.

(3) “Interim expungement” means to expunge a felony arrest from the criminal history of a person who was convicted of a misdemeanor offense arising out of the original felony arrest. Only the original felony arrest may be expunged in an interim expungement.

(4) “Records” includes any incident reports, photographs, fingerprints, disposition, or any other such information of any kind in relation to a single arrest event in the possession of the clerk of court, any criminal justice agency, and local and state law enforcement agencies but shall not include DNA records.

La C.Cr.P. art. 973 Effect of expunged record of arrest or conviction

A. An expunged record of arrest or conviction shall be confidential and no longer considered to be a public record and shall not be made available to any person or other entity except for the following:

(1) To a member of a law enforcement or criminal justice agency or prosecutor who shall request that information in writing, certifying that the request is for the purpose of investigating, prosecuting, or enforcing criminal law, for the purpose of any other statutorily defined law enforcement or administrative duties, or for the purposes of the requirements of sex offender registration and notification pursuant to the provisions of R.S. 15:540 et seq.

(2) On order of a court of competent jurisdiction and after a contradictory hearing for good cause shown.

(3) To the person whose record has been expunged or his counsel.

(4) To a member of a law enforcement or criminal justice agency, prosecutor, or judge, who requests that information in writing, certifying that the request is for the purpose of defending a law enforcement, criminal justice agency, or prosecutor in a civil suit for damages resulting from wrongful arrest or other civil litigation and the expunged record is necessary to provide a proper defense.

B. Upon written request therefor and on a confidential basis, the information contained in an expunged record may be released to the following entities that shall maintain the confidentiality of such record: the Office of Financial Institutions, the Louisiana State Board of Medical Examiners, the Louisiana State Board of Nursing, the Louisiana State Board of Dentistry, the Louisiana State Board of Examiners of Psychologists, the Louisiana Board of Pharmacy, the Louisiana State Board of Social Work Examiners, the Emergency Medical Services Certification Commission, Louisiana Attorney Disciplinary Board, Office of Disciplinary Counsel, the Louisiana Supreme Court Committee on Bar Admissions, the Louisiana Department of Insurance, the Louisiana Licensed Professional Counselors Board of Examiners, or any person or entity requesting a record of all criminal arrests and convictions pursuant to R.S. 15:587.1, or as otherwise provided by law.

C. Except as to those persons and other entities set forth in Paragraph A of this Article, no person whose record of arrest or conviction has been expunged shall be required to disclose to any person that he was arrested or convicted of the subject offense, or that the record of the arrest or conviction has been expunged.

D. Any person who fails to maintain the confidentiality of records as required by the provisions of this Article shall be subject to contempt proceedings.

E. Nothing in this Article shall be construed to limit or impair in any way the subsequent use of any expunged record of any arrests or convictions by a law enforcement agency, criminal justice agency, or prosecutor including its use as a predicate offense, for the purposes of the Habitual Offender Law, or as otherwise authorized by law.

F. Nothing in this Article shall be construed to limit or impair the authority of a law enforcement official to use an expunged record of any arrests or convictions in conducting an investigation to ascertain or confirm the qualifications of any person for any privilege or license as required or authorized by law.

G. Nothing in this Article shall be construed to limit or impair in any way the subsequent use of any expunged record of any arrests or convictions by a “news-gathering organization”. For the purposes of this Title, “news-gathering organization” means all of the following:

(1) A newspaper, or news publication, printed or electronic, of current news and intelligence of varied, broad, and general public interest, having been published for a minimum of one year and that can provide documentation of membership in a statewide or national press association, as represented by an employee thereof who can provide documentation of his employment with the newspaper, wire service, or news publication.

(2) A radio broadcast station, television broadcast station, cable television operator, or wire service as represented by an employee thereof who can provide documentation of his employment.

H. Nothing in this Article shall be construed to relieve a person who is required to register and provide notice as a child predator or sex offender of any obligations and responsibilities provided in R.S. 15:541 et seq.

Art. 974. Dissemination of expunged records by third parties; court order

A. A private third-party entity, excluding a news-gathering organization, that compiles and disseminates criminal history information for compensation shall not disseminate any information in its possession regarding an arrest, conviction, or other disposition after it has received notice of an issuance of a court order to expunge the record of any such arrest or conviction. The provisions of this Paragraph shall not apply to private third-party entities which are regulated by the Fair Credit Reporting Act (15 U.S.C. §1681 et seq.) or the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (15 U.S.C. §6801-6809).

B. The person obtaining the expungement shall send notice of the order of expungement by certified or registered mail with return receipt requested and a certified copy of the order of expungement.

C. A private third-party entity that publicly disseminates criminal history information in violation of this Article after having received notice as provided for in Paragraph B of this Article, may be liable for any actual damages, court costs, and attorney fees that are incurred by the person whose criminal history was disseminated.

Art. 975. Individuals incarcerated; ineligible to file motion to expunge records

Notwithstanding any other provision of law to the contrary, a person in the custody of the Department of Public Safety and Corrections, or incarcerated in any correctional facility shall not be permitted to file a motion to expunge a record of an arrest which did not result in a conviction or to expunge a record of an arrest and conviction of a misdemeanor or felony offense.

Art. 976. Motion to expunge record of arrest that did not result in a conviction

A person may file a motion to expunge a record of his arrest for a felony or misdemeanor offense that did not result in a conviction if any of the following apply:

(1) The person was not prosecuted for the offense for which he was arrested, and the limitations on the institution of prosecution have barred the prosecution for that offense.

(2) The district attorney for any reason declined to prosecute any offense arising out of that arrest.

(3) Prosecution was instituted and such proceedings have been finally disposed of by dismissal, sustaining of a motion to quash, or acquittal.

Art. 977. Motion to expunge a record of arrest and conviction of a misdemeanor offense

A. A person may file a motion to expunge his record of arrest and conviction of a misdemeanor offense if either of the following apply:

(1) The conviction was set aside and the prosecution was dismissed pursuant to Article 894(B) of this Code.

(2) More than five years have elapsed since the person completed any sentence, deferred adjudication, or period of probation or parole, and the person has not been convicted of any felony offense during the five-year period, and has no felony charge pending against him. The motion filed pursuant to this Subparagraph shall include a certification obtained from the district attorney which verifies that to his knowledge the applicant has no felony convictions during the five-year period and no pending felony charges under a bill of information or indictment.

B. The motion to expunge a record of arrest and conviction of a misdemeanor offense shall be served pursuant to the provisions of Article 979 of this Code.

C. No person shall be entitled to expungement of a record under either of the following circumstances:

(1) The misdemeanor conviction arose from circumstances involving a sex offense as defined in R.S. 15:541, except that an interim expungement shall be available as authorized by the provisions of Article 985.1 of this Code.

(2) The misdemeanor conviction was for domestic abuse battery which was not dismissed pursuant to Article 894(B) of this Code.

D.(1) Expungement of a record of arrest and conviction of a misdemeanor offense shall occur only once with respect to any person during a five-year period, unless the person was sentenced pursuant to Article 894(B) of this Code.

(2) Expungement of a record of arrest and conviction of a misdemeanor offense of operating a vehicle while intoxicated shall occur only once with respect to any person during a ten-year period.

Art. 978. Motion to expunge record of arrest and conviction of a felony offense

A. Except as provided in Paragraph B of this Article, a person may file a motion to expunge his record of arrest and conviction of a felony offense if either of the following apply:

(1) The conviction was set aside and the prosecution was dismissed pursuant to Article 893(E) of this Code.

(2) More than ten years have elapsed since the person completed any sentence, deferred adjudication, or period of probation or parole based on the felony conviction, and the person has not been convicted of any other criminal offense during the ten-year period, and has no criminal charge pending against him. The motion filed pursuant to this Subparagraph shall include a certification obtained from the district attorney which verifies that, to his knowledge, the applicant has no convictions during the ten-year period and no pending charges under a bill of information or indictment.

B. No expungement shall be granted nor shall a person be permitted to file a motion to expunge the record of arrest and conviction of a felony offense if the person was convicted of the commission or attempted commission of any of the following offenses:

(1) Unless otherwise permissible under Article 893(E) of this Code, a crime of violence as defined by or enumerated in R.S. 14:2(B).

(2)(a) Notwithstanding any provision of Article 893 of this Code, a sex offense or a criminal offense against a victim who is a minor as each term is defined by R.S. 15:541, or any offense which occurred prior to June 18, 1992, that would be defined as a sex offense or a criminal offense against a victim who is a minor had it occurred on or after June 18, 1992.

(b) Any person who was convicted of carnal knowledge of a juvenile (R.S. 14:80) prior to August 15, 2001, is eligible for an expungement pursuant to the provisions of this Title if the offense for which the offender was convicted would be defined as misdemeanor carnal knowledge of a juvenile (R.S. 14:80.1) had the offender been convicted on or after August 15, 2001. The burden is on the mover to establish that the elements of the offense of conviction are equivalent to the current definition of misdemeanor carnal knowledge of a juvenile as defined by R.S. 14:80.1. A copy of the order waiving the sex offender registration and notification requirements issued pursuant to the provisions of R.S. 15:542(F) shall be sufficient to meet this burden.

(3) Unless otherwise permissible under Article 893(E) of this Code, a violation of the Uniform Controlled Dangerous Substances Law, except that a conviction for possession of a controlled dangerous substance as provided for in R.S. 40:966(C), 967(C), 968(C), or 969(C), or a conviction for possession of a controlled dangerous substance with the intent to distribute may be expunged pursuant to the provisions of this Title.

C. The motion to expunge a record of arrest and conviction of a felony offense shall be served pursuant to the provisions of Article 979 of this Code.

D. Expungement of a record of arrest and conviction of a felony offense shall occur only once with respect to any person during a fifteen-year period.

Art. 984. Additional requirements for the expungement of records involving the operation of a vehicle while intoxicated; additional fee

A. A person convicted of operating a vehicle while intoxicated shall be required to supplement the motions required in this Title with proof in the form of a certified letter from the Department of Public Safety and Corrections, office of motor vehicles, that the person has complied with the requirements of this Article. The certified letter shall be attached to the motion to expunge the record of arrest and conviction for operating a vehicle while intoxicated.

B. The court shall order the clerk of court to mail to the Department of Public Safety and Corrections, office of motor vehicles, all of the following as provided by the defendant:

(1) A certified copy of the record of the plea of guilty or nolo contendere.

(2) Fingerprints of the defendant.

(3) Proof that the defendant meets the requirements as set forth in Article 556 or 556.1 of this Code which shall include the defendant’s date of birth, social security number, and driver’s license number.

C. An additional fifty dollar court cost shall be assessed at this time against the defendant and paid to the Department of Public Safety and Corrections, office of motor vehicles, for the costs of storage and retrieval of the records.

Art. 985.1. Interim motion to expunge a felony arrest from criminal history in certain cases resulting in a misdemeanor conviction

A. A person may file an interim motion to expunge a felony arrest from his criminal history when that original arrest results in a conviction for a misdemeanor. In such cases, only the original felony arrest may be expunged.

B. The interim motion to expunge a felony arrest which results in a misdemeanor conviction from criminal history is separate and distinct from an expungement of a final conviction pursuant to Articles 976, 977, and 978 of this Code.

C. Except as provided in Paragraph D of this Article, an interim motion to expunge a felony arrest from criminal history shall follow the same procedures and fees established pursuant to the provisions of Article 979 et seq of this Code.

D. An interim motion to expunge shall not be subject to the time limitations provided for in Articles 977(A)(2) or 978(A)(2) of this Code, and there shall be no restriction on the number of interim expungements which may be granted.

“Felony” is any crime for which an offender may be sentenced to death or imprisonment at hard labor.

“Misdemeanor” is any crime other than a felony.

La. R.S. 14:2

La. R.S. 14:100 – Hit-and-Run Driving

A. Hit and run driving is the intentional failure of the driver of a vehicle involved in or causing any accident, to stop such vehicle at the scene of the accident, to give his identity, and to render reasonable aid.

B. For the purpose of this Section:

(1) “To give his identity”, means that the driver of any vehicle involved in any accident shall give his name, address, and the license number of his vehicle, or shall report the accident to the police.

(2) “Serious bodily injury” means bodily injury which involves unconsciousness, extreme physical pain, or protracted and obvious disfigurement, or protracted loss or impairment of the function of a bodily member, organ, or mental faculty, or a substantial risk of death.

(3) “Vehicle” includes a watercraft.

(4) “Accident” means an incident or event resulting in damage to property or injury to person.

C.(1)(a) Whoever commits the crime of hit-and-run driving where there is no death or serious bodily injury shall be fined not more than five hundred dollars or imprisoned for not more than six months, or both.

(b) Whoever commits the crime of hit-and-run driving where there is no death or serious bodily injury shall be fined not more than five hundred dollars, imprisoned for not less than ten days nor more than six months, or both when:

(i) there is evidence that the vehicle operator consumed alcohol or used drugs or a controlled dangerous substance prior to the accident; (ii) the consumption of the alcohol, drugs, or a controlled dangerous substance contributed to the accident; and (iii) the driver failed to stop, give his identity, or render aid with the knowledge that his actions could affect an actual or potential present, past, or future criminal investigation or proceeding.

(2) Whoever commits the crime of hit-and-run driving, when death or serious bodily injury is a direct result of the accident and when the driver knew or should have known that death or serious bodily injury has occurred, shall be fined not more than five thousand dollars or imprisoned with or without hard labor for not more than ten years, or both.

(3) Whoever commits the crime of hit-and-run driving where all of the following conditions are met shall be imprisoned, with or without hard labor, for not less than five years nor more than twenty years:

(a) Death or serious bodily injury is a direct result of the accident.

(b) The driver knew or must have known that the vehicle he was operating was involved in an accident or that his operation of the vehicle was the direct cause of an accident.

(c) The driver had been previously convicted of any of the following:

(i) A violation of R.S. 14:98, or a law or an ordinance of any state or political subdivision prohibiting operation of any vehicle or means of transportation or conveyance while intoxicated, impaired, or while under the influence of alcohol, drugs, or any controlled dangerous substance on two or more occasions within ten years of this offense.

(ii) A violation of R.S. 14:32.1-vehicular homicide.

(iii) A violation of R.S. 14:39.1-vehicular negligent injuring.

(iv) A violation of R.S. 14:39.2-first degree vehicular negligent injuring.

La. R.S. 14:29 – Homicide

Homicide is the killing of a human being by the act, procurement, or culpable omission of another. Criminal homicide is of five grades:

(1) First degree murder.

(2) Second degree murder.

(3) Manslaughter.

(4) Negligent homicide.

(5) Vehicular homicide.

La. R.S. 14:30 – First Degree Murder

A. First degree murder is the killing of a human being:

(1) When the offender has specific intent to kill or to inflict great bodily harm and is engaged in the perpetration or attempted perpetration of aggravated kidnapping, second degree kidnapping, aggravated escape, aggravated arson, aggravated rape, forcible rape, aggravated burglary, armed robbery, assault by drive-by shooting, first degree robbery, second degree robbery, simple robbery, terrorism, cruelty to juveniles, or second degree cruelty to juveniles.

(2) When the offender has a specific intent to kill or to inflict great bodily harm upon a fireman, peace officer, or civilian employee of the Louisiana State Police Crime Laboratory or any other forensic laboratory engaged in the performance of his lawful duties, or when the specific intent to kill or to inflict great bodily harm is directly related to the victim’s status as a fireman, peace officer, or civilian employee.

(3) When the offender has a specific intent to kill or to inflict great bodily harm upon more than one person.

(4) When the offender has specific intent to kill or inflict great bodily harm and has offered, has been offered, has given, or has received anything of value for the killing.

(5) When the offender has the specific intent to kill or to inflict great bodily harm upon a victim who is under the age of twelve or sixty-five years of age or older.

(6) When the offender has the specific intent to kill or to inflict great bodily harm while engaged in the distribution, exchange, sale, or purchase, or any attempt thereof, of a controlled dangerous substance listed in Schedules I, II, III, IV, or V of the Uniform Controlled Dangerous Substances Law.

(7) When the offender has specific intent to kill or to inflict great bodily harm and is engaged in the activities prohibited by R.S. 14:107.1(C)(1).

(8) When the offender has specific intent to kill or to inflict great bodily harm and there has been issued by a judge or magistrate any lawful order prohibiting contact between the offender and the victim in response to threats of physical violence or harm which was served on the offender and is in effect at the time of the homicide.

(9) When the offender has specific intent to kill or to inflict great bodily harm upon a victim who was a witness to a crime or was a member of the immediate family of a witness to a crime committed on a prior occasion and:

(a) The killing was committed for the purpose of preventing or influencing the victim’s testimony in any criminal action or proceeding whether or not such action or proceeding had been commenced; or

(b) The killing was committed for the purpose of exacting retribution for the victim’s prior testimony.

(10) When the offender has a specific intent to kill or to inflict great bodily harm upon a taxicab driver who is in the course and scope of his employment. For purposes of this Paragraph, “taxicab” means a motor vehicle for hire, carrying six passengers or less, including the driver thereof, that is subject to call from a garage, office, taxi stand, or otherwise.

(11) When the offender has a specific intent to kill or inflict great bodily harm and the offender has previously acted with a specific intent to kill or inflict great bodily harm that resulted in the killing of one or more persons.

B.(1) For the purposes of Paragraph (A)(2) of this Section, the term “peace officer” means any peace officer, as defined in R.S. 40:2402, and includes any constable, marshal, deputy marshal, sheriff, deputy sheriff, local or state policeman, commissioned wildlife enforcement agent, federal law enforcement officer, jail or prison guard, parole officer, probation officer, judge, attorney general, assistant attorney general, attorney general’s investigator, district attorney, assistant district attorney, or district attorney’s investigator.

(2) For the purposes of Paragraph (A)(9) of this Section, the term “member of the immediate family” means a husband, wife, father, mother, daughter, son, brother, sister, stepparent, grandparent, stepchild, or grandchild.

(3) For the purposes of Paragraph (A)(9) of this Section, the term “witness” means any person who has testified or is expected to testify for the prosecution, or who, by reason of having relevant information, is subject to call or likely to be called as a witness for the prosecution, whether or not any action or proceeding has yet commenced.

C. Penalty provisions.

(1) If the district attorney seeks a capital verdict, the offender shall be punished by death or life imprisonment at hard labor without benefit of parole, probation, or suspension of sentence, in accordance with the determination of the jury. The provisions of C.Cr.P. Art 782 relative to cases in which punishment may be capital shall apply.

(2) If the district attorney does not seek a capital verdict, the offender shall be punished by life imprisonment at hard labor without benefit of parole, probation or suspension of sentence. The provisions of C.Cr.P. Art 782 relative to cases in which punishment is necessarily confinement at hard labor shall apply.

La. R.S. 14:30.1 – Second Degree Murder

A. Second degree murder is the killing of a human being:

(1) When the offender has a specific intent to kill or to inflict great bodily harm; or

(2) When the offender is engaged in the perpetration or attempted perpetration of aggravated rape, forcible rape, aggravated arson, aggravated burglary, aggravated kidnapping, second degree kidnapping, aggravated escape, assault by drive-by shooting, armed robbery, first degree robbery, second degree robbery, simple robbery, cruelty to juveniles, second degree cruelty to juveniles, or terrorism, even though he has no intent to kill or to inflict great bodily harm.

(3) When the offender unlawfully distributes or dispenses a controlled dangerous substance listed in Schedules I through V of the Uniform Controlled Dangerous Substances Law*, or any combination thereof, which is the direct cause of the death of the recipient who ingested or consumed the controlled dangerous substance.

(4) When the offender unlawfully distributes or dispenses a controlled dangerous substance listed in Schedules I through V of the Uniform Controlled Dangerous Substances Law*, or any combination thereof, to another who subsequently distributes or dispenses such controlled dangerous substance which is the direct cause of the death of the person who ingested or consumed the controlled dangerous substance.

B. Whoever commits the crime of second degree murder shall be punished by life imprisonment at hard labor without benefit of parole, probation, or suspension of sentence.

La. R.S. 14:31 – Manslaughter

A. Manslaughter is:

(1) A homicide which would be murder under either Article 30 (first degree murder) or Article 30.1 (second degree murder), but the offense is committed in sudden passion or heat of blood immediately caused by provocation sufficient to deprive an average person of his self-control and cool reflection. Provocation shall not reduce a homicide to manslaughter if the jury finds that the offender’s blood had actually cooled, or that an average person’s blood would have cooled, at the time the offense was committed; or

(2) A homicide committed, without any intent to cause death or great bodily harm.

(a) When the offender is engaged in the perpetration or attempted perpetration of any felony not enumerated in Article 30 or 30.1, or of any intentional misdemeanor directly affecting the person; or

(b) When the offender is resisting lawful arrest by means, or in a manner, not inherently dangerous, and the circumstances are such that the killing would not be murder under Article 30 or 30.1.

B. Whoever commits manslaughter shall be imprisoned at hard labor for not more than forty years. However, if the victim killed was under the age of ten years, the offender shall be imprisoned at hard labor, without benefit of probation or suspension of sentence, for not less than ten years nor more than forty years.

La. R.S. 14:32 – Negligent Homicide

A. Negligent homicide is either of the following:

(1) The killing of a human being by criminal negligence.

(2) The killing of a human being by a dog or other animal when the owner is reckless and criminally negligent in confining or restraining the dog or other animal.

B. The violation of a statute or ordinance shall be considered only as presumptive evidence of such negligence.

C.(1) Except as provided for in Paragraph (2) of this Subsection, whoever commits the crime of negligent homicide shall be imprisoned with or without hard labor for not more than five years, fined not more than five thousand dollars, or both.

(2)(a) If the victim killed was under the age of ten years, the offender shall be imprisoned at hard labor, without benefit of probation, parole, or suspension of sentence, for not less than two nor more than five years.

(b) If the court does not order the offender to a term of imprisonment when the following two factors are established, the court shall state, both orally and in writing at the time of sentencing, the reasons for not sentencing the offender to a term of imprisonment:

(i) The fatality was caused by a person engaged in the operation of, or in actual physical control of, any motor vehicle, aircraft, watercraft, or other means of conveyance; and

(ii) The offender’s blood alcohol concentration contributed to the fatality.

(3) If the victim was killed by a dog or other animal, the owner of the dog or other animal shall be imprisoned with or without hard labor for not more than five years or fined not more than five thousand dollars, or both.

D. The provisions of this Section shall not apply to:

(1) Any dog which is owned, or the service of which is employed, by any state or local law enforcement agency for the principal purpose of aiding in the detection of criminal activity, enforcement of laws, or apprehension of offenders.

(2) Any dog trained in accordance with the standards of a national or regional search and rescue association to respond to instructions from its handler in the search and rescue of lost or missing individuals and which dog, together with its handler, is prepared to render search and rescue services at the request of law enforcement.

(3) Any guide or service dog trained at a qualified dog guide or service school who is accompanying any blind person, visually handicapped person, deaf person, hearing impaired person, or otherwise physically disabled person who is using the dog as a guide or for service.

(4) Any attack made by a dog lawfully inside a dwelling, a place of business, or a motor vehicle as defined in R.S. 32:1(40), against a person who is attempting to make an unlawful entry into the dwelling, place of business, or motor vehicle, or who has made an unlawful entry into the dwelling, place of business, or motor vehicle, and the dog is protecting that property.

(5) Any attack made by livestock as defined in this Section.

E. For the purposes of this Section:

(1) “Harboring or keeping” means feeding, sheltering, or having custody over the animal for three or more consecutive days.

(2) “Livestock” means any animal except dogs and cats, bred, kept, maintained, raised, or used for profit, that is used in agriculture, aquaculture, agritourism, competition, recreation, or silvaculture, or for other related purposes or used in the production of crops, animals, or plant or animal products for market. This definition includes but is not limited to cattle, buffalo, bison, oxen, and other bovine; horses, mules, donkeys, and other equine; goats; sheep; swine; chickens, turkeys, and other poultry; domestic rabbits; imported exotic deer and antelope, elk, farm-raised white-tailed deer, farm-raised ratites, and other farm-raised exotic animals; fish, pet turtles, and other animals identified with aquaculture which are located in artificial reservoirs or enclosures that are both on privately owned property and constructed so as to prevent, at all times, the ingress and egress of fish life from public waters; any commercial crawfish from any crawfish pond; and any hybrid, mixture, or mutation of any such animal.

(3) “Owner” means any person, partnership, corporation, or other legal entity owning, harboring, or keeping any animal.

La. R.S. 14:95 – Illegal Carrying of Weapons

A. Illegal carrying of weapons is:

(1) The intentional concealment of any firearm, or other instrumentality customarily used or intended for probable use as a dangerous weapon, on one’s person; or

(2) The ownership, possession, custody or use of any firearm, or other instrumentality customarily used as a dangerous weapon, at any time by an enemy alien; or

(3) The ownership, possession, custody or use of any tools, or dynamite, or nitroglycerine, or explosives, or other instrumentality customarily used by thieves or burglars at any time by any person with the intent to commit a crime; or

(4)(a) The manufacture, ownership, possession, custody or use of any switchblade knife, spring knife or other knife or similar instrument having a blade which may be automatically unfolded or extended from a handle by the manipulation of a button, switch, latch or similar contrivance located on the handle.

(b) The provisions of this Paragraph shall not apply to the following:

(i) Any knife that may be opened with one hand by manual pressure applied to the blade or any projection of the blade.

(ii) Any knife that may be opened by means of inertia produced by the hand, wrist, or other movement, provided the knife has either a detent or other structure that provides resistance that shall be overcome in opening or initiating the opening movement of the blade or a bias or spring load toward the closed position.

(5)(a) The intentional possession or use by any person of a dangerous weapon on a school campus during regular school hours or on a school bus. “School” means any elementary, secondary, high school, or vo-tech school in this state and “campus” means all facilities and property within the boundary of the school property. “School bus” means any motor bus being used to transport children to and from school or in connection with school activities.

(b) The provisions of this Paragraph shall not apply to:

(i) A peace officer as defined by R.S. 14:30(B) in the performance of his official duties.

(ii) A school official or employee acting during the normal course of his employment or a student acting under the direction of such school official or employee.

(iii) Any person having the written permission of the principal or school board and engaged in competition or in marksmanship or safety instruction.

B.(1) Whoever commits the crime of illegal carrying of weapons shall be fined not more than five hundred dollars, or imprisoned for not more than six months, or both.

(2) Whoever commits the crime of illegal carrying of weapons with any firearm used in the commission of a crime of violence as defined in R.S. 14:2(B), shall be fined not more than two thousand dollars, or imprisoned, with or without hard labor, for not less than one year nor more than two years, or both. Any sentence issued pursuant to the provisions of this Paragraph and any sentence issued pursuant to a violation of a crime of violence as defined in R.S. 14:2(B) shall be served consecutively.

C. On a second conviction, the offender shall be imprisoned with or without hard labor for not more than five years.

D. On third and subsequent convictions, the offender shall be imprisoned with or without hard labor for not more than ten years without benefit of parole, probation, or suspension of sentence.

E. If the offender uses, possesses, or has under his immediate control any firearm, or other instrumentality customarily used or intended for probable use as a dangerous weapon, while committing or attempting to commit a crime of violence or while in the possession of or during the sale or distribution of a controlled dangerous substance, the offender shall be fined not more than ten thousand dollars and imprisoned at hard labor for not less than five nor more than ten years without the benefit of probation, parole, or suspension of sentence. Upon a second or subsequent conviction, the offender shall be imprisoned at hard labor for not less than twenty years nor more than thirty years without the benefit of probation, parole, or suspension of sentence.

F.(1) For purposes of determining whether a defendant has a prior conviction for a violation of this Section, a conviction pursuant to this Section or a conviction pursuant to an ordinance of a local governmental subdivision of this state which contains the elements provided for in Subsection A of this Section shall constitute a prior conviction.

(2) The enhanced penalty upon second, third, and subsequent convictions shall not be applicable in cases where more than five years have elapsed since the expiration of the maximum sentence, or sentences, of the previous conviction or convictions, and the time of the commission of the last offense for which he has been convicted; the sentence to be imposed in such event shall be the same as may be imposed upon a first conviction.

(3) Any ordinance that prohibits the unlawful carrying of firearms enacted by a municipality, town, or similar political subdivision or governing authority of this state shall be subject to the provisions of R.S. 40:1796.

G.(1) The provisions of this Section except Paragraph (4) of Subsection A shall not apply to sheriffs and their deputies, state and city police, constables and town marshals, or persons vested with police power when in the actual discharge of official duties. These provisions shall not apply to sheriffs and their deputies and state and city police who are not actually discharging their official duties, provided that such persons are full time, active, and certified by the Council on Peace Officer Standards and Training and have on their persons valid identification as duly commissioned law enforcement officers.

(2) The provisions of this Section except Paragraph (4) of Subsection A shall not apply to any law enforcement officer who is retired from full-time active law enforcement service with at least twelve years service upon retirement, nor shall it apply to any enforcement officer of the office of state parks, in the Department of Culture, Recreation and Tourism who is retired from active duty as an enforcement officer, provided that such retired officers have on their persons valid identification as retired law enforcement officers, which identification shall be provided by the entity which employed the officer prior to his or her public retirement. The retired law enforcement officer must be qualified annually in the use of firearms by the Council on Peace Officer Standards and Training and have proof of such qualification. This exception shall not apply to such officers who are medically retired based upon any mental impairment.

(3)(a) The provisions of this Section except Paragraph (4) of Subsection A shall not apply to active or retired reserve or auxiliary law enforcement officers qualified annually by the Council on Peace Officer Standards and Training and who have on their person valid identification as active or retired reserve law or auxiliary municipal police officers. The active or retired reserve or auxiliary municipal police officer shall be qualified annually in the use of firearms by the Council on Peace Officer Standards and Training and have proof of such certification.

(b) For the purposes of this Paragraph, a reserve or auxiliary municipal police officer shall be defined as a volunteer, non-regular, sworn member of a law enforcement agency who serves with or without compensation and has regular police powers while functioning as such agency’s representative, and who participates on a regular basis in agency activities including, but not limited to those pertaining to crime prevention or control, and the preservation of the peace and enforcement of the law.

H. The provisions of this Section shall not prohibit active justices or judges of the supreme court, courts of appeal, district courts, parish courts, juvenile courts, family courts, city courts, federal courts domiciled in the state of Louisiana, and traffic courts, constables, coroners, district attorneys and designated assistant district attorneys, United States attorneys and assistant United States attorneys and investigators, and justices of the peace from possessing and concealing a handgun on their person when the justice or judge, constable, coroner, district attorneys and designated assistant district attorneys, United States attorneys and assistant United States attorneys and investigators, or justices of the peace are certified by the Council on Peace Officer Standards and Training.

I. The provisions of this Section shall not prohibit the carrying of a concealed handgun by a person who is a college or university police officer under the provisions of R.S. 17:1805 and who is carrying a concealed handgun in accordance with the provisions of that statute.

J. The provisions of this Section shall not prohibit the ownership of rescue knives by commissioned full-time law enforcement officers. The provisions of this Section shall not prohibit the carrying of rescue knives by commissioned full-time law enforcement officers who are in the actual discharge of their official duties. The provisions of this Section shall not prohibit the sale of rescue knives to commissioned full-time law enforcement officers. The provisions of this Section shall not prohibit the ownership or possession of rescue knives by merchants who own or possess the knives solely as inventory to be offered for sale to commissioned full-time law enforcement officers. As used in this Subsection, a “rescue knife” is a folding knife, which can be readily and easily opened with one hand and which has at least one blade which is designed to be used to free individuals who are trapped by automobile seat belts, or at least one blade which is designed for a similar purpose. No blade of a rescue knife shall exceed five inches in length.

K.(1) The provisions of this Section shall not prohibit a retired justice or judge of the supreme court, courts of appeal, district courts, parish courts, juvenile courts, family courts, and city courts from possessing and concealing a handgun on their person provided that such retired justice or judge is certified by the Council on Peace Officer Standards and Training and has on their person valid identification showing proof of their status as a retired justice or judge.

(2) The retired justice or judge shall be qualified annually in the use of firearms by the Council on Peace Officer Standards and Training and have proof of such certification. However, this Subsection shall not apply to a retired justice or judge who is medically retired based upon any mental impairment.

La. R.S. 14:67 – Theft

A. Theft is the misappropriation or taking of anything of value which belongs to another, either without the consent of the other to the misappropriation or taking, or by means of fraudulent conduct, practices, or representations. An intent to deprive the other permanently of whatever may be the subject of the misappropriation or taking is essential.

B.(1) Whoever commits the crime of theft when the misappropriation or taking amounts to a value of one thousand five hundred dollars or more shall be imprisoned, with or without hard labor, for not more than ten years, or may be fined not more than three thousand dollars, or both.

(2) When the misappropriation or taking amounts to a value of five hundred dollars or more, but less than a value of one thousand five hundred dollars, the offender shall be imprisoned, with or without hard labor, for not more than five years, or may be fined not more than two thousand dollars, or both.

(3) When the misappropriation or taking amounts to less than a value of five hundred dollars, the offender shall be imprisoned for not more than six months, or may be fined not more than one thousand dollars, or both. If the offender in such cases has been convicted of theft two or more times previously, upon any subsequent conviction he shall be imprisoned, with or without hard labor, for not more than two years, or may be fined not more than two thousand dollars, or both.

C. When there has been a misappropriation or taking by a number of distinct acts of the offender, the aggregate of the amount of the misappropriations or taking shall determine the grade of the offense.

La. R.S. 14:67.10 – Theft of Goods

A. Theft of goods is the misappropriation or taking of anything of value which is held for sale by a merchant, either without the consent of the merchant to the misappropriation or taking, or by means of fraudulent conduct, practices, or representations. An intent to deprive the merchant permanently of whatever may be the subject of the misappropriation or taking is essential and may be inferred when a person:

(1) Intentionally conceals, on his person or otherwise, goods held for sale.

(2) Alters or transfers any price marking reflecting the actual retail price of the goods.

(3) Transfers goods from one container or package to another or places goods in any container, package, or wrapping in a manner to avoid detection.

(4) Willfully causes the cash register or other sales recording device to reflect less than the actual retail price of the goods.

(5) Removes any price marking with the intent to deceive the merchant as to the actual retail price of the goods.

(6) Damages or consumes goods or property so as to render it unmerchantable.

B.(1) Whoever commits the crime of theft of goods when the misappropriation or taking amounts to a value of one thousand five hundred dollars or more shall be imprisoned, with or without hard labor, for not more than ten years or may be fined not more than three thousand dollars, or both.

(2) When the misappropriation or taking amounts to a value of five hundred dollars or more, but less than a value of one thousand five hundred dollars, the offender shall be imprisoned, with or without hard labor, for not more than five years or may be fined not more than two thousand dollars, or both.

(3) When the misappropriation or taking amounts to less than a value of five hundred dollars, the offender shall be imprisoned for not more than six months or may be fined not more than five hundred dollars, or both. If the offender in such cases has been convicted of theft or theft of goods two or more times previously, upon any subsequent conviction he shall be imprisoned, with or without hard labor, for not more than two years or may be fined not more than one thousand dollars, or both.

(4) When there has been a misappropriation or taking by a number of distinct acts of the offender, the aggregate of the amount of the misappropriations or takings shall determine the grade of the offense.

La. R.S. 40:966 – Schedule I Penalties

A. Manufacture; distribution. Except as authorized by this Part, it shall be unlawful for any person knowingly or intentionally:

(1) To produce, manufacture, distribute or dispense or possess with intent to produce, manufacture, distribute, or dispense, a controlled dangerous substance or controlled substance analogue classified in Schedule I;

(2) To create, distribute, or possess with intent to distribute, a counterfeit controlled dangerous substance classified in Schedule I.

B. Penalties for violation of Subsection A of this Section. Any person who violates Subsection A of this Section with respect to:

(1) A substance classified in Schedule I which is a narcotic drug (all substances in Schedule I preceded by an asterisk “*”), upon conviction shall be sentenced to imprisonment for not less than five nor more than fifty years at hard labor at least five years of which shall be served without benefit of probation, or suspension of sentence, and may, in addition, be required to pay a fine of not more than fifty thousand dollars.

(2) Except as otherwise provided in Paragraph (3) of this Subsection, any other controlled dangerous substance classified in Schedule I, shall upon conviction be sentenced to a term of imprisonment at hard labor for not less than five years nor more than thirty years, at least five years of which shall be served without benefit of parole, probation, or suspension of sentence, and pay a fine of not more than fifty thousand dollars.

(3) A substance classified in Schedule I which is marijuana, tetrahydrocannabinols, or chemical derivatives of tetrahydrocannabinols, or synthetic cannabinoids shall upon conviction be sentenced to a term of imprisonment at hard labor for not less than five nor more than thirty years, and pay a fine of not more than fifty thousand dollars.

C. Possession. It is unlawful for any person knowingly or intentionally to possess a controlled dangerous substance classified in Schedule I unless such substance was obtained directly, or pursuant to a valid prescription or order, from a practitioner or as provided in R.S. 40:978, while acting in the course of his professional practice, or except as otherwise authorized by this Part. Any person who violates this Subsection with respect to:

(1) A substance classified in Schedule I which is a narcotic drug (all substances in Schedule I preceded by an asterisk), shall be imprisoned at hard labor for not less than four years nor more than ten years and may, in addition, be required to pay a fine of not more than five thousand dollars.

(2) Phencyclidine, shall be sentenced to imprisonment with or without hard labor for not less than five nor more than twenty years and may be sentenced to pay a fine of not more than five thousand dollars, or both.

(3) Any other controlled dangerous substance classified in Schedule I, shall be imprisoned at hard labor for not more than ten years, and may in addition, be required to pay a fine of not more than five thousand dollars.

D. Other penalties for possession. (1) Except as otherwise authorized in this Part:

(a) Any person who knowingly or intentionally possesses twenty-eight grams or more, but less than two hundred grams, of a narcotic drug (all substances in Schedule I preceded by an asterisk “*”), shall be sentenced to serve a term of imprisonment at hard labor of not less than five years, nor more than thirty years, and to pay a fine of not less than fifty thousand dollars, nor more than one hundred fifty thousand dollars.

(b) Any person who knowingly or intentionally possesses two hundred grams or more, but less than four hundred grams, of a narcotic drug (all substances in Schedule I preceded by an asterisk “*”), shall be sentenced to serve a term of imprisonment at hard labor of not less than ten years, nor more than thirty years, and to pay a fine of not less than one hundred thousand dollars, nor more than three hundred fifty thousand dollars.

(c) Any person who knowingly or intentionally possesses four hundred grams or more of a narcotic drug (all substances in Schedule I preceded by an asterisk “*”), shall be sentenced to serve a term of imprisonment at hard labor of not less than fifteen years, nor more than thirty years, and to pay a fine of not less than two hundred fifty thousand dollars, nor more than six hundred thousand dollars.

E. Possession of marijuana, or synthetic cannabinoids. (1) Except as provided in Subsections E and F of this Section, on a first conviction for violation of Subsection C of this Section with regard to marijuana, tetrahydrocannabinol, or chemical derivatives thereof, or synthetic cannabinoids the offender shall be fined not more than five hundred dollars, imprisoned in the parish jail for not more than six months, or both.

(2)(a) Except as provided in Subsection F or G of this Section, on a second conviction for violation of Subsection C of this Section with regard to marijuana, tetrahydrocannabinol or chemical derivatives thereof, or synthetic cannabinoids, the offender shall be fined not less than two hundred fifty dollars, nor more than two thousand dollars, imprisoned with or without hard labor for not more than five years, or both.

(b) If the court places the offender on probation, the probation shall provide for a minimum condition that he participate in a court-approved substance abuse program and perform four eight-hour days of court-approved community service activities. Any costs associated with probation shall be paid by the offender.

(3) Except as provided in Subsection F or G of this Section, on a third or subsequent conviction for violation of Subsection C of this Section with regard to marijuana, tetrahydrocannabinol or chemical derivatives thereof, or synthetic cannabinoids the offender shall be sentenced to imprisonment with or without hard labor for not more than twenty years, and may, in addition, be sentenced to pay a fine of not more than five thousand dollars.

(4) A conviction for the violation of any other statute or ordinance with the same elements as R.S. 40:966(C) prohibiting the possession of marijuana, tetrahydrocannabinol or chemical derivatives thereof, or synthetic cannabinoids shall be considered as a prior conviction for the purposes of this Subsection relating to penalties for second, third, or subsequent offenders.

(5) A conviction for the violation of any other statute or ordinance with the same elements as R.S. 40:966(B)(3) prohibiting the distributing or dispensing or possession with intent to distribute or dispense marijuana, of marijuana,1 tetrahydrocannabinol or chemical derivatives thereof, or synthetic cannabinoids shall be considered as a prior conviction for the purposes of this Subsection relating to penalties for second, third, or subsequent offenders.

F. Except as otherwise authorized in this Part:
(1) Any person who knowingly or intentionally possesses sixty pounds or more, but less than two thousand pounds of marijuana, tetrahydrocannabinol or chemical derivatives thereof, or synthetic cannabinoids shall be sentenced to serve a term of imprisonment at hard labor of not less than five years, nor more than thirty years, and to pay a fine of not less than fifty thousand dollars nor more than one hundred thousand dollars.

(2) Any person who knowingly or intentionally possesses two thousand pounds or more, but less than ten thousand pounds of marijuana, tetrahydrocannabinol or chemical derivatives thereof, or synthetic cannabinoids shall be sentenced to serve a term of imprisonment at hard labor of not less than ten years nor more than forty years, and to pay a fine of not less than one hundred thousand dollars nor more than four hundred thousand dollars.

(3) Any person who knowingly or intentionally possesses ten thousand pounds or more of marijuana, tetrahydrocannabinol or chemical derivatives thereof, or synthetic cannabinoids shall be sentenced to serve a term of imprisonment at hard labor of not less than twenty-five years, nor more than forty years and to pay a fine of not less than four hundred thousand dollars nor more than one million dollars.

G. With respect to any person to whom the provisions of Subsections D and F are applicable, the adjudication of guilt or imposition of sentence shall not be suspended, deferred, or withheld, nor shall such person be eligible for probation or parole prior to serving the minimum sentences provided by Subsection D or F.

H. Notwithstanding any other provision of law to the contrary, unless eligible for parole at an earlier date, a person committed to the Department of Public Safety and Corrections serving a life sentence for the production, manufacturing, distribution, or dispensing or possessing with intent to produce, manufacture, or distribute heroin shall be eligible for parole consideration upon serving at least fifteen years of imprisonment in actual custody.

La. R.S. 40:967 – Schedule II Penalties

A. Manufacture; distribution. Except as authorized by this Part or by Part VII-B of Chapter 5 of Title 40 of the Louisiana Revised Statutes of 1950, it shall be unlawful for any person knowingly or intentionally:

(1) To produce, manufacture, distribute, or dispense or possess with intent to produce, manufacture, distribute, or dispense, a controlled dangerous substance or controlled substance analogue classified in Schedule II;

(2) To create, distribute, or possess with intent to distribute, a counterfeit controlled dangerous substance classified in Schedule II.

B. Penalties for violation of Subsection A. Except as provided in Subsection F, any person who violates Subsection A with respect to:

(1) A substance classified in Schedule II which is an amphetamine or methamphetamine or which is a narcotic drug, except cocaine or cocaine base or a mixture or substance containing cocaine or its analogues as provided in Schedule II(A)(4) of R.S. 40:964 and except oxycodone as provided in Schedule II(A)(1)(o) of R.S. 40:964 and except methadone as provided in Schedule II(B)(11) of R.S. 40:964 shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment at hard labor for not less than two years nor more than thirty years; and may, in addition, be sentenced to pay a fine of not more than fifty thousand dollars.

(2) Pentazocine, shall be sentenced to imprisonment at hard labor for not less than two years nor more than ten years, at least two years of which shall be served without benefit of parole, probation, or suspension of sentence, and, in addition, may be sentenced to pay a fine of not more than fifteen thousand dollars.

(3)(a) Production or manufacturing of amphetamine or methamphetamine shall be sentenced to imprisonment at hard labor for not less than ten years nor more than thirty years, at least ten years of which shall be served without benefit of parole, probation, or suspension of sentence, and in addition may be sentenced to pay a fine of not more than five hundred thousand dollars.

(b) This Subparagraph shall be cited as the “Child Endangerment Law”. When the state proves in addition to the elements of the crime as set forth in Subsection A of this Section that a minor child twelve years of age or younger is present in the home, mobile home or other inhabited dwelling at the time of the commission of the offense, the minimum mandatory sentence shall be fifteen years without benefit of parole, probation, or suspension of sentence.

(4)(a) Production or manufacturing of cocaine or cocaine base or a mixture or substance containing cocaine or its analogues as provided in Schedule II(A)(4) of R.S. 40:964 or oxycodone as provided in Schedule II(A)(1)(o) of R.S. 40:964 or methadone as provided in Schedule II(B)(11) of R.S. 40:964 shall be sentenced to imprisonment at hard labor for not less than ten nor more than thirty years, at least ten years of which shall be served without benefit of parole, probation, or suspension of sentence, and may be fined not more than five hundred thousand dollars.

(b) Distribution, dispensing, or possession with intent to produce, manufacture, distribute, or dispense cocaine or cocaine base or a mixture or substance containing cocaine or its analogues as provided in Schedule II(A)(4) of R.S. 40:964 or oxycodone as provided in Schedule II(A)(1)(o) of R.S. 40:964 or methadone as provided in Schedule II(B)(11) of R.S. 40:964 shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment at hard labor for not less than two years nor more than thirty years, with the first two years of said sentence being without benefit of parole, probation, or suspension of sentence; and may, in addition, be sentenced to pay a fine of not more than fifty thousand dollars.

(5) Any other controlled dangerous substance classified in Schedule II except pentazocine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, cocaine, oxycodone, or methadone shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment at hard labor for not more than ten years, and in addition may be sentenced to pay a fine of not more than fifteen thousand dollars.

C. Possession. It is unlawful for any person knowingly or intentionally to possess a controlled dangerous substance as classified in Schedule II unless such substance was obtained directly or pursuant to a valid prescription or order from a practitioner, as provided in R.S. 40:978 while acting in the course of his professional practice, or except as otherwise authorized by this Part.

(1) Any person who violates this Subsection with respect to pentazocine shall be imprisoned with or without hard labor for not less than two years and for not more than five years and, in addition, may be sentenced to pay a fine of not more than five thousand dollars.

(2) Any person who violates this Subsection as to any other controlled dangerous substance shall be imprisoned with or without hard labor for not more than five years and, in addition, may be sentenced to pay a fine of not more than five thousand dollars.

D, E. Repealed by Acts 1981, No. 800, §4, eff. Aug. 2, 1981.

F. Other penalties for possession.
(1) Except as otherwise authorized in this Part:
(a) Any person who knowingly or intentionally possesses twenty-eight grams or more, but less than two hundred grams, of cocaine or of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of cocaine or of its analogues as provided in Schedule II(A)(4) of R.S. 40:964, shall be sentenced to serve a term of imprisonment at hard labor of not less than five years, nor more than thirty years, and to pay a fine of not less than fifty thousand dollars, nor more than one hundred fifty thousand dollars.

(b) Any person who knowingly or intentionally possesses two hundred grams or more, but less than four hundred grams, of cocaine or of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of cocaine or of its analogues as provided in Schedule II(A)(4) of R.S. 40:964, shall be sentenced to serve a term of imprisonment at hard labor of not less than ten years, nor more than thirty years, and to pay a fine of not less than one hundred thousand dollars, nor more than three hundred fifty thousand dollars.

(c) Any person who knowingly or intentionally possesses four hundred grams or more of cocaine or of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of cocaine or of its analogues as provided in Schedule II(A)(4) of R.S. 40:964, shall be sentenced to serve a term of imprisonment at hard labor of not less than fifteen years, nor more than thirty years and to pay a fine of not less than two hundred fifty thousand dollars, nor more than six hundred thousand dollars.

(2) Except as otherwise authorized in this Part:
(a) Any person who knowingly or intentionally possesses twenty-eight grams or more, but less than two hundred grams, of amphetamine or methamphetamine or of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of amphetamine or methamphetamine or any of their analogues as provided in Schedule II(C) of R.S. 40:964, shall be sentenced to serve a term of imprisonment at hard labor of not less than five years, nor more than thirty years, and to pay a fine of not less than fifty thousand dollars, nor more than one hundred fifty thousand dollars.

(b) Any person who knowingly or intentionally possesses two hundred grams or more, but less than four hundred grams, of amphetamine or methamphetamine or of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of amphetamine or methamphetamine or any of their analogues as provided in Schedule II(C) of R.S. 40:964, shall be sentenced to serve a term of imprisonment at hard labor of not less than ten years, nor more than thirty years, and to pay a fine of not less than one hundred thousand dollars, nor more than three hundred fifty thousand dollars.

(c) Any person who knowingly or intentionally possesses four hundred grams or more of amphetamine or methamphetamine or of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of amphetamine or methamphetamine or any of its analogues as provided in Schedule II(C) of R.S. 40:964, shall be sentenced to serve a term of imprisonment at hard labor of not less than fifteen years, nor more than thirty years, and to pay a fine of not less than two hundred fifty thousand dollars, nor more than six hundred thousand dollars.

(3) Except as otherwise authorized in this Part:

(a) Any person who knowingly or intentionally possesses twenty-eight grams or more, but less than two hundred grams, of gamma hydroxybutyric acid or of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of gamma hydroxybutyric acid or of its analogues shall be sentenced to serve a term of imprisonment at hard labor of not less than five years, nor more than thirty years, and to pay a fine of not less than fifty thousand dollars, nor more than one hundred fifty thousand dollars.

(b) Any person who knowingly or intentionally possesses two hundred grams or more, but less than four hundred grams, of gamma hydroxybutyric acid or of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of gamma hydroxybutyric acid or of its analogues shall be sentenced to serve a term of imprisonment at hard labor of not less than ten years, nor more than thirty years, and to pay a fine of not less than one hundred thousand dollars, nor more than three hundred fifty thousand dollars.

(c) Any person who knowingly or intentionally possesses four hundred grams or more of gamma hydroxybutyric acid or of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of gamma hydroxybutyric acid or of its analogues shall be sentenced to serve a term of imprisonment at hard labor of not less than fifteen years, nor more than thirty years, and to pay a fine of not less than two hundred fifty thousand dollars, nor more than six hundred thousand dollars.

G. With respect to any person to whom the provisions of Subsection F are applicable, the adjudication of guilt or imposition of sentence shall not be suspended, deferred, or withheld, nor shall such person be eligible for probation or parole prior to serving the minimum sentences provided by Subsection F.

La. R.S. 40:968 – Schedule III Penalties

A. Manufacture; distribution. Except as authorized by this part, it shall be unlawful for any person knowingly or intentionally:

(1) To produce, manufacture, distribute or dispense or possess with intent to produce, manufacture, distribute, or dispense, a controlled dangerous substance classified in Schedule III;

(2) To create, distribute, or possess with intent to distribute, a counterfeit controlled dangerous substance classified in Schedule III.

B. Penalties for violation of Subsection A. Any person who violates Subsection A with respect to any controlled dangerous substance classified in Schedule III shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment at hard labor for not more than ten years; and, in addition, may be sentenced to pay a fine of not more than fifteen thousand dollars.

C. Possession. It is unlawful for any person knowingly or intentionally to possess a controlled dangerous substance classified in Schedule III unless such substance was obtained directly or pursuant to a valid prescription or order from a practitioner, or as provided in R.S. 40:978 or R.S. 40:1239, while acting in the course of his professional practice or except as otherwise authorized by this Part. Any person who violates this Subsection shall be imprisoned with or without hard labor for not more than five years and, in addition, may be required to pay a fine of not more than five thousand dollars.

La. R.S. 40:969 – Schedule IV Penalties

A. Manufacture; distribution. Except as authorized by this part, it shall be unlawful for any person knowingly or intentionally:

(1) To produce, manufacture, distribute or dispense or possess with intent to produce, manufacture, distribute, or dispense, a controlled dangerous substance classified in Schedule IV;

(2) To create, distribute, or possess with intent to distribute, a counterfeit controlled dangerous substance classified in Schedule IV.

B. Penalties for violation of Subsection A. Any person who violates Subsection A with respect to:

(1) Flunitrazepam shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment at hard labor for not less than five years nor more than thirty years and pay a fine of not more than fifty thousand dollars.

(2) Any other controlled dangerous substance classified in Schedule IV, except flunitrazepam, shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment at hard labor for not more than ten years; and in addition, may be sentenced to pay a fine of not more than fifteen thousand dollars.

C. Possession. It is unlawful for any person knowingly or intentionally to possess a controlled dangerous substance classified in Schedule IV unless such substance was obtained directly or pursuant to a valid prescription or order from a practitioner, or as provided in R.S. 40:978, while acting in the course of his professional practice or except as otherwise authorized by this Part. Any person who violates this Subsection with respect to:

(1) Flunitrazepam shall be imprisoned at hard labor for not more than ten years, and may in addition, be required to pay a fine of not more than five thousand dollars.

(2) Any other controlled dangerous substance shall be imprisoned with or without hard labor for not more than five years and, in addition, may be required to pay a fine of not more than five thousand dollars.

D. Whoever, with the intent to commit a crime of violence as defined in R.S. 14:2(B)(10) against an individual, violates Subsection A of this Section by administering a controlled dangerous substance to a person who is unaware that the controlled dangerous substance has been or is being administered to him, shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment at hard labor for not less than five years nor more than forty years and may be fined not more than one hundred thousand dollars.

La. R.S. 40:970 – Schedule V Penalties

A. Manufacture; distribution. Except as authorized by this part, it shall be unlawful for any person knowingly or intentionally:

(1) To produce, manufacture, distribute or dispense or possess with intent to produce, manufacture, distribute, or dispense, a controlled dangerous substance classified in Schedule V;

(2) To create, distribute, or possess with intent to distribute, a counterfeit controlled dangerous substance classified in Schedule V.

B. Penalties for violation of Subsection A. Any person who violates Subsection A with respect to any controlled dangerous substance classified in Schedule V shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment at hard labor for not more than five years; and, in addition, may be sentenced to pay a fine of not more than five thousand dollars.

C. Possession. It is unlawful for any person unknowingly1 or intentionally to possess a controlled dangerous substance classified in Schedule V unless such substance was obtained directly or pursuant to a valid prescription or order from a practitioner, or as provided in R.S. 40:978, while acting in the course of his professional practice or except as otherwise authorized by this Part. Any person who violates this section shall be imprisoned with or without hard labor for not more than five years; and in addition, may be required to pay a fine of not more than five thousand dollars.

La. R.S. 40:963 – Schedules of Controlled Dangerous Substances

There are established five schedules of controlled substances, to be known as Schedules I, II, III, IV, and V. Such schedules shall initially consist of the substances listed in R.S. 40:964. In determining that a substance is to be added to these schedules, the secretary of the Department of Health and Hospitals shall find the following:

A. As to Schedule I:
(1) The drug or other substance has a high potential for abuse.
(2) The drug or other substance has no currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States, and
(3) There is a lack of accepted safety for use of the drug or other substance under medical supervision.

B. As to Schedule II:
(1) The drug or other substance has a high potential for abuse.
(2) The drug or other substance has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States or a currently accepted medical use with severe restrictions, and
(3) Abuse of the drug or other substances may lead to severe psychological or physical dependence.

C. As to Schedule III:
(1) The drug or other substance has a potential for abuse less than the drugs or other substances listed in Schedules I and II.
(2) The drug or other substance has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States, and
(3) Abuse of the drug or other substance may lead to moderate or low physical dependence or high psychological dependence.

D. As to Schedule IV:
(1) The drug or other substance has a low potential for abuse relative to the drugs or other substances listed in Schedule III.
(2) The drug or other substance has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States, and
(3) Abuse of the drug or other substance may lead to limited physical dependence or psychological dependence relative to the drugs or other substances listed in Schedule III.

E. As to Schedule V:
(1) The drug or other substance has a low potential for abuse relative to the drugs or other substances listed in Schedule IV.
(2) The drug or other substance has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States, and
(3) Abuse of the drug or other substance may lead to limited physical dependence or psychological dependence relative to the drugs or other substances listed in Schedule IV.

La. R.S. 40:961 – Definitions

As used in this Part, the following terms shall have the meaning ascribed to them in this Section unless the context clearly indicates otherwise:

(1) “Addict” means a drug dependent person who habitually uses any narcotic drugs as to have lost the power of self-control with reference to his use of said drugs.

(2) “Administer” means to deliver under the auspices of a registered practitioner a controlled dangerous substance to the ultimate user or human research subject by injection, or for inhalation, or ingestion, or by any other means except where otherwise provided by law.

(3) “Agent” means an authorized person who acts on behalf of or at the direction of a manufacturer, distributor, or dispenser but does not include a common or contract carrier, public warehouseman, or employee thereof.

(4) “Apothecary” means a licensed pharmacist as defined by the laws of this state and, where the context so requires, the owner of the store or other place of business where narcotic drugs are compounded or dispensed by a licensed pharmacist; but nothing in this Part shall be construed as conferring on a person who is not registered nor licensed as a pharmacist any authority, right or privilege that is not granted to him by the pharmacy laws of this state.

(5) “Cannabis” includes all parts of plants of the genus Cannabis, whether growing or not; the seeds thereof; the resin extracted from any part of such plant, and every compound, manufacture, salt, derivative, mixture, or preparation of such plant, its seeds or resin, but shall not include the mature stalks of such plant, fiber produced from such stalks, oil or cake made from the seeds of such plant, any other compound, manufacture, salt, derivative, mixture, or preparation of such mature stalks (except the resin extracted therefrom), fiber, oil, or cake or the sterilized seed of such plant which is incapable of germination.

(6) “Control” means to add a drug or other substance, or immediate precursor, to a schedule under R.S. 40:964, whether by transfer from another schedule or otherwise.

(7) “Controlled dangerous substance” means any substance defined, enumerated, or included in federal or state statute or regulations, 21 CFR §1308.11-15 or R.S. 40:964, or any substance which may hereafter be designated as a controlled dangerous substance by amendment of supplementation of such regulations or statute. The term shall not include distilled spirits, wine, malt beverages, or tobacco.

(8) “Controlled substance analogue” means a substance the chemical structure of which is substantially similar to the chemical structure of a controlled dangerous substance in Schedule I or II of R.S. 40:964; which has a stimulant, depressant, or hallucinogenic effect on the central nervous system that is substantially similar to or greater than the stimulant, depressant, or hallucinogenic effect on the central nervous system of a controlled dangerous substance in Schedule I or II; or with respect to a particular person, which such person represents or intends to have a stimulant, depressant, or hallucinogenic effect on the central nervous system that is substantially similar to or greater than the stimulant, depressant, or hallucinogenic effect on the central nervous system of a controlled dangerous substance in Schedule I or II. Such term shall not include any substance for which there is an approved new drug application; with respect to a particular person any substance, if an exemption is in effect for investigational use, for that person, under the federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. §355) to the extent conduct with respect to such substance is pursuant to such exemption; or any substance to the extent not intended for human consumption before an exception takes effect with respect to that substance.

(9) “Counterfeit controlled dangerous substance” means a controlled dangerous substance which, without authorization, bears the trademark, trade name or other identifying mark, imprint, number, or device, or any likeness thereof, of a manufacturer, distributor, or dispenser other than the person or persons who in fact manufactured, distributed, or dispensed such substance and which thereby falsely purports or is represented to be the product of, or to have been distributed by, such other manufacturer, distributor, or dispenser.

(10) “Deliver” or “delivery” means the transfer of a controlled dangerous substance whether or not there exists an agency relationship.

(11) “Dentist” means a person licensed and authorized by law to practice dentistry in this state.

(12) “Depressant” means a drug which contains any quantity of barbituric acid or any of the salts of barbituric acid; or any derivatives of barbituric acid; or any substance listed in Schedule I(d), Schedule II(d) or Schedule III(b) of R.S. 40:964, or which has been designated by the secretary of the Department of Health and Hospitals as habit forming because of its depressant effect on the central nervous system.

(13) “Dispense” means to deliver a controlled dangerous substance to the ultimate user or human research subject by or pursuant to the lawful order of a practitioner, including the packaging, labeling, or compounding necessary to prepare the substance for such delivery.

(14) “Distribute” means to deliver a controlled dangerous substance whether by physical delivery, administering, subterfuge, furnishing a prescription, or by filling, packaging, labeling or compounding the substance pursuant to the lawful order of a practitioner.

(15) “Distributor” means a person who delivers a controlled dangerous substance as herein defined.

(16) “Drug” means:

(a) Articles recognized in the official United States Pharmacopoeia, official Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States, or official National Formulary, or any supplement to any of them.

(b) Articles intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease in man or other animals.

(c) Articles other than food intended to affect the structure of any function of the body of man or other animals.

(d) Articles intended for use as a component of any article specified in Subparagraph (a), (b) or (c) of this Paragraph, but does not include devices or their components, parts, or accessories.

(17) “Drug Enforcement Administration” means the Drug Enforcement Administration, United States Department of Justice or its successor.

(18) “Drug dependent person” means a person who is using a controlled dangerous substance and who is in a state of psychic or physical dependence, or both, arising from administration of that controlled dangerous substance on a continuous basis. Drug dependence is characterized by behavioral and other responses which include a strong compulsion to take the substance on a continuous basis in order to experience its psychic effects, or to avoid the discomfort of its absence.

(19) “Hallucinogen” means a drug which contains any quantity of LSD (Lysergic acid diethylamide), its isomers, salts, salts of isomers, or any quantity of a substance listed in Schedule I(C) of R.S. 40:964, or any substance which the secretary of the Department of Health and Hospitals after investigation has found to have, and by regulation designates as having, a potential for abuse because of its depressant or stimulant effect on the central nervous system, or hallucinogenic effect.

(20) “Imitation controlled dangerous substance” means a noncontrolled substance which by appearance or operation, including color, shape, size, markings, or packaging, or by representations made, or by its pharmacological effect, would lead a reasonable person to believe that the substance is a controlled dangerous substance.

(21) “Immediate precursor” means a substance which the secretary of the Department of Health and Hospitals has found to be and by regulation designates as being the principal compound commonly used or produced primarily for use, and which is an immediate chemical intermediary used or likely to be used in the manufacture of a controlled dangerous substance, the control of which is necessary to prevent, curtail, or limit such manufacture.

(22) “Isomers” refers to optical isomers and/or stereoisomers and mixtures thereof, unless specifically excepted in this Part. Optical isomers or stereoisomers are molecules which differ from each other only in the way the constituent atoms are oriented in space.

(23) “Legend drug” means any drug or drug product bearing on the label of the manufacturer or distributor, as required by the Federal Food and Drug Administration, the statement “Caution: Federal law prohibits dispensing without prescription”.

(24) “Manufacture” means the production, preparation, propagation, compounding, or processing of a controlled dangerous substance, either directly or indirectly by extraction from substances of natural origin, or independently by means of chemical synthesis, or by a combination of extraction and chemical synthesis. Manufacturer includes any person who packages, repackages, or labels any container of any controlled dangerous substance, except practitioners who dispense or compound prescription orders for delivery to the ultimate consumer.

(25) “Marijuana” means all parts of plants of the genus Cannabis, whether growing or not; the seeds thereof; the resin extracted from any part of such plant; and every compound, manufacture, salt, derivative, mixture, or preparation of such plant, its seeds or resin, but shall not include the mature stalks of such plant, fiber produced from such stalks, oil or cake made from the seeds of such plant, any other compound, manufacture, salt, derivative, mixture, or preparation of such mature stalks (except the resin extracted therefrom), fiber, oil, or cake, or the sterilized seed of such plant which is incapable of germination.

(26) “Narcotic drug” means any of the following, whether produced directly or indirectly by extraction from substances of vegetable origin, or independently by means of chemical synthesis, or by a combination of extraction and chemical synthesis:

(a) Opium, coca leaves, and opiates.

(b) A compound, manufacture, salt, derivatives, or preparation of opium, coca leaves, or opiates.

(c) A substance and any compound, manufacture, salt, derivative, or preparation thereof which is chemically identical with any of the substances referred to in Subparagraphs (a) and (b) of this Paragraph, except that the words “narcotic drug” as used in this Part shall not include decocainized coca leaves or extracts of coca leaves, which extracts do not contain cocaine or ecgonine.

(26.1) “Nitrogen-heterocyclic analog” means a nitrogen-heterocyclic analog of a synthetic cannabinoid which has a single carbon atom in a cyclic structure of a compound replaced by a nitrogen atom.

(27) “Opiate” means any dangerous substance having an addiction-forming or addiction-sustaining liability similar to morphine or being capable of conversion into a drug having such addiction-forming or addiction-sustaining liability. It does not include, unless specifically designated as controlled under R.S. 40:963, the dextrorotatory isomer of 3-methoxy-n-methylmorphinan and its salts (dextromethorphan). It does include its racemic and levorotatory forms.

(28) “Opium poppy” means the plant of the species Papaver somniferum, except the seeds thereof.

(29) “Person” includes any institution whether public or private, hospitals or clinics operated by the state or any of its political subdivisions, and any corporation, association, partnership, or one or more individuals.

(29.1) “Physical dependence” means a physiologic state of neuroadaptation which is characterized by the emergence of a withdrawal syndrome if drug use is stopped or decreased abruptly, or if an antagonist is administered. Physical dependence is an expected result of opioid use. Physical dependence, by itself, does not equate with addiction.

(30) “Poppy straw” means all parts, except the seeds, of the opium poppy, after mowing.

(31) “Practitioner” means a physician, dentist, veterinarian, scientific investigator, pharmacy, hospital, or other person licensed, registered, or otherwise permitted to distribute, dispense, conduct research with respect to, or administer a controlled dangerous substance in the course of professional practice or research in this state.

(32) “Prescribe” means to issue a written request or order for a controlled dangerous substance by a person licensed under this Part for a legitimate medical purpose. The act of prescribing must be in good faith and in the usual course of the licensee’s professional practice.

(33) “Prescription” means a written request for a drug or therapeutic aid issued by a licensed physician, dentist, veterinarian, osteopath, or podiatrist for a legitimate medical purpose, for the purpose of correcting a physical, mental, or bodily ailment, and acting in good faith in the usual course of his professional practice.

(34) “Production” includes the manufacture, planting, cultivation, growing, or harvesting of a controlled dangerous substance.

(35) “Secretary” means the secretary of the Department of Health and Hospitals or his successor.

(36) “State” means the state of Louisiana.

(37) “Stimulant” means a drug which contains a quantity of amphetamine or any of its isomers; any salt of amphetamine or any salt of an isomer of amphetamine; or any substance listed in Schedules II(C) or III(A) of R.S. 40:964, or any substance which the secretary of the Department of Health and Hospitals after investigation, has found to be and by regulation designated as habit forming because of its stimulant effect on the central nervous system.

(38) “Substance abuse” or “addiction” means a compulsive disorder in which an individual becomes preoccupied with obtaining and using a substance, despite adverse social, psychological, or physical consequences, the continued use of which results in a decreased quality of life. The development of controlled dangerous substance tolerance or physical dependence does not equate with substance abuse or addiction.

(39) “Tolerance” means the physiologic state resulting from regular use of a drug in which an increased dosage is needed to produce the same effect or a reduced effect is observed with a constant dose. Controlled dangerous substance tolerance refers to the need to increase the dose of the drug to achieve the same level of analgesia. Controlled dangerous substance tolerance may or may not be evident during controlled dangerous substance treatment.

(40) “Ultimate user” means a person who lawfully possesses a controlled dangerous substance for his own use or for the use of a member of his household or for administration to an animal owned by him or by a member of his household.

La. R.S. 14:65 – Simple Robbery

A. Simple robbery is the taking of anything of value belonging to another from the person of another or that is in the immediate control of another, by use of force or intimidation, but not armed with a dangerous weapon.

B. Whoever commits the crime of simple robbery shall be fined not more than three thousand dollars, imprisoned with or without hard labor for not more than seven years, or both.

La. R.S. 14:64 – Armed Robbery

A. Armed robbery is the taking of anything of value belonging to another from the person of another or that is in the immediate control of another, by use of force or intimidation, while armed with a dangerous weapon.

B. Whoever commits the crime of armed robbery shall be imprisoned at hard labor for not less than ten years and for not more than ninety-nine years, without benefit of parole, probation, or suspension of sentence.

La. R.S. 14:64.1 – First Degree Robbery

A. First degree robbery is the taking of anything of value belonging to another from the person of another, or that is in the immediate control of another, by use of force or intimidation, when the offender leads the victim to reasonably believe he is armed with a dangerous weapon.

B. Whoever commits the crime of first degree robbery shall be imprisoned at hard labor for not less than three years and for not more than forty years, without benefit of parole, probation or suspension of imposition or execution of sentence.

La. R.S. 14:64.2 – Carjacking

A. Carjacking is the intentional taking of a motor vehicle, as defined in R.S. 32:1(40), belonging to another person, in the presence of that person, or in the presence of a passenger, or any other person in lawful possession of the motor vehicle, by the use of force or intimidation.

B. Whoever commits the crime of carjacking shall be imprisoned at hard labor for not less than two years and for not more than twenty years, without benefit of parole, probation, or suspension of sentence.

La. R.S. 14:64.4 – Second Degree Robbery

A.(1) Second degree robbery is the taking of anything of value belonging to another from the person of another or that is in the immediate control of another when the offender intentionally inflicts serious bodily injury.

(2) For purposes of this Section, “serious bodily injury” means bodily injury which involves unconsciousness, extreme physical pain or protracted and obvious disfigurement, or protracted loss or impairment of the function of a bodily member, organ, or mental faculty, or a substantial risk of death.

B. Whoever commits the crime of second degree robbery shall be imprisoned at hard labor for not less than three years and for not more than forty years.

La. R.S. 14:65.1 – Purse Snatching

A. Purse snatching is the theft of anything of value contained within a purse or wallet at the time of the theft, from the person of another or which is in the immediate control of another, by use of force, intimidation, or by snatching, but not armed with a dangerous weapon.

B. Whoever commits the crime of purse snatching shall be imprisoned, with or without hard labor, for not less than two years and for not more than twenty years.

La. R.S. 14:40.2 – Stalking

A. Stalking is the intentional and repeated following or harassing of another person that would cause a reasonable person to feel alarmed or to suffer emotional distress. Stalking shall include but not be limited to the intentional and repeated uninvited presence of the perpetrator at another person’s home, workplace, school, or any place which would cause a reasonable person to be alarmed, or to suffer emotional distress as a result of verbal or behaviorally implied threats of death, bodily injury, sexual assault, kidnaping, or any other statutory criminal act to himself or any member of his family or any person with whom he is acquainted.

B.(1)(a) Notwithstanding any law to the contrary, on first conviction, whoever commits the crime of stalking shall be fined not less than five hundred dollars nor more than one thousand dollars and shall be imprisoned for not less than thirty days nor more than one year. Notwithstanding any other sentencing provisions, any person convicted of stalking shall undergo a psychiatric evaluation. Imposition of the sentence shall not be suspended unless the offender is placed on probation and participates in a court-approved counseling which could include but shall not be limited to anger management, abusive behavior intervention groups, or any other type of counseling deemed appropriate by the courts.

(b) Whoever commits the crime of stalking against a victim under the age of eighteen when the provisions of Paragraph (6) of this Subsection are not applicable shall be imprisoned for not more than three years, with or without hard labor, and fined not more than two thousand dollars, or both.

(2)(a) Any person who commits the offense of stalking and who is found by the trier of fact, whether the jury at a jury trial, the judge in a bench trial, or the judge at a sentencing hearing following a jury trial, beyond a reasonable doubt to have placed the victim of the stalking in fear of death or bodily injury by the actual use of or the defendant’s having in his possession during the instances which make up the crime of stalking a dangerous weapon or is found beyond a reasonable doubt to have placed the victim in reasonable fear of death or bodily injury, shall be imprisoned for not less than one year nor more than five years, with or without hard labor, without benefit of probation, parole, or suspension of sentence and may be fined one thousand dollars, or both. Whether or not the defendant’s use of or his possession of the dangerous weapon is a crime or, if a crime, whether or not he is charged for that offense separately or in addition to the crime of stalking shall have no bearing or relevance as to the enhanced sentence under the provisions of this Paragraph.

(b) If the victim is under the age of eighteen, and when the provisions of Paragraph (6) of this Subsection are not applicable, the offender shall be imprisoned for not less than two years nor more than five years, with or without hard labor, without benefit of probation, parole, or suspension of sentence and may be fined not less than one thousand nor more than two thousand dollars, or both.

(3) Any person who commits the offense of stalking against a person for whose benefit a protective order, a temporary restraining order, or any lawful order prohibiting contact with the victim issued by a judge or magistrate is in effect in either a civil or criminal proceeding, protecting the victim of the stalking from acts by the offender which otherwise constitute the crime of stalking, shall be punished by imprisonment with or without hard labor for not less than ninety days and not more than two years or fined not more than five thousand dollars, or both.

(4) Upon a second conviction occurring within seven years of a prior conviction for stalking, the offender shall be imprisoned with or without hard labor for not less than five years nor more than twenty years, without benefit of probation, parole, or suspension of sentence, and may be fined not more than five thousand dollars, or both.

(5) Upon a third or subsequent conviction, the offender shall be imprisoned with or without hard labor for not less that ten years and not more than forty years and may be fined not more than five thousand dollars, or both.

(6)(a) Any person thirteen years of age or older who commits the crime of stalking against a child twelve years of age or younger and who is found by the trier of fact, whether the jury at a jury trial, the judge in a bench trial, or the judge at a sentencing hearing following a jury trial, beyond a reasonable doubt to have placed the child in reasonable fear of death or bodily injury, or in reasonable fear of the death or bodily injury of a family member of the child shall be punished by imprisonment with or without hard labor for not less than one year and not more than three years and fined not less than fifteen hundred dollars and not more than five thousand dollars, or both.

(b) Lack of knowledge of the child’s age shall not be a defense.

C. For the purposes of this Section, the following words shall have the following meanings:

(1) “Harassing” means the repeated pattern of verbal communications or nonverbal behavior without invitation which includes but is not limited to making telephone calls, transmitting electronic mail, sending messages via a third party, or sending letters or pictures.

(2) “Pattern of conduct” means a series of acts over a period of time, however short, evidencing an intent to inflict a continuity of emotional distress upon the person. Constitutionally protected activity is not included within the meaning of pattern of conduct.

(3) Repealed by Acts 1993, No. 125, §2.

D. As used in this Section, when the victim of the stalking is a child twelve years old or younger:

(1) “Pattern of conduct” includes repeated acts of nonconsensual contact involving the victim or a family member.

(2) “Family member” includes:

(a) A child, parent, grandparent, sibling, uncle, aunt, nephew, or niece of the victim, whether related by blood, marriage, or adoption.

(b) A person who lives in the same household as the victim.

(3)(a) “Nonconsensual contact” means any contact with a child twelve years old or younger that is initiated or continued without that child’s consent, that is beyond the scope of the consent provided by that child, or that is in disregard of that child’s expressed desire that the contact be avoided or discontinued.

(b) “Nonconsensual contact” includes:

(i) Following or appearing within the sight of that child.

(ii) Approaching or confronting that child in a public place or on private property.

(iii) Appearing at the residence of that child.

(iv) Entering onto or remaining on property occupied by that child.

(v) Contacting that child by telephone.

(vi) Sending mail or electronic communications to that child.

(vii) Placing an object on, or delivering an object to, property occupied by that child.

(c) “Nonconsensual contact” does not include any otherwise lawful act by a parent, tutor, caretaker, mandatory reporter, or other person having legal custody of the child as those terms are defined in the Louisiana Children’s Code.

(4) “Victim” means the child who is the target of the stalking.

E. Whenever it is deemed appropriate for the protection of the victim, the court may send written notice to any employer of a person convicted for a violation of the provisions of this Section describing the conduct on which the conviction was based.

F.(1) Upon motion of the district attorney or on the court’s own motion, whenever it is deemed appropriate for the protection of the victim, the court may, in addition to any penalties imposed pursuant to the provisions of this Section, grant a protective order which directs the defendant to refrain from abusing, harassing, interfering with the victim or the employment of the victim, or being physically present within a certain distance of the victim.

(2) Any protective order granted pursuant to the provisions of this Subsection shall be served on the defendant at the time of sentencing.

(3)(a) The court shall order that the protective order be effective either for an indefinite period of time or for a fixed term which shall not exceed eighteen months.

(b) If the court grants the protective order for an indefinite period of time pursuant to Subparagraph (a) of this Paragraph, after a hearing, on the motion of any party and for good cause shown, the court may modify the indefinite effective period of the protective order to be effective for a fixed term, not to exceed eighteen months, or to terminate the effectiveness of the protective order. A motion to modify or terminate the effectiveness of the protective order may be granted only after a good faith effort has been made to provide reasonable notice of the hearing to the victim, the victim’s designated agent, or the victim’s counsel, and either of the following occur:

(i) The victim, the victim’s designated agent, or the victim’s counsel is present at the hearing or provides written waiver of such appearance.

(ii) After a good faith effort has been made to provide reasonable notice of the hearing, the victim could not be located.

(4)(a) Immediately upon granting a protective order, the court shall cause to have prepared a Uniform Abuse Prevention Order, as provided in R.S. 46:2136.2, shall sign such order, and shall forward it to the clerk of court for filing, without delay.

(b) The clerk of the issuing court shall send a copy of the Uniform Abuse Prevention Order or any modification thereof to the chief law enforcement official of the parish where the victim resides. A copy of the Uniform Abuse Prevention Order shall be retained on file in the office of the chief law enforcement officer as provided in this Subparagraph until otherwise directed by the court.

(c) The clerk of the issuing court shall transmit the Uniform Abuse Prevention Order, or any modification thereof, to the Louisiana Protective Order Registry pursuant to R.S. 46:2136.2, by facsimile transmission, mail, or direct electronic input, where available, as expeditiously as possible, but no later than the end of the next business day after the order is filed with the clerk of court.

G. The provisions of this Section shall not apply to a private investigator licensed pursuant to the provisions of Chapter 56 of Title 37 of the Louisiana Revised Statutes of 1950, acting during the course and scope of his employment and performing his duties relative to the conducting of an investigation.

H. The provisions of this Section shall not apply to an investigator employed by an authorized insurer regulated pursuant to the provisions of Title 22 of the Louisiana Revised Statutes of 1950, acting during the course and scope of his employment and performing his duties relative to the conducting of an insurance investigation.

I. The provisions of this Section shall not apply to an investigator employed by an authorized self-insurance group or entity regulated pursuant to the provisions of Chapter 10 of Title 23 of the Louisiana Revised Statutes of 1950, acting during the course and scope of his employment and performing his duties relative to the conducting of an insurance investigation.

J. A conviction for stalking shall not be subject to expungement as provided for by R.S. 44:9.

La. R.S. 14:40.3 – Cyberstalking

A. For the purposes of this Section, the following words shall have the following meanings:
(1) “Electronic communication” means any transfer of signs, signals, writing, images, sounds, data, or intelligence of any nature, transmitted in whole or in part by wire, radio, computer, electromagnetic, photoelectric, or photo-optical system.

(2) “Electronic mail” means the transmission of information or communication by the use of the Internet, a computer, a facsimile machine, a pager, a cellular telephone, a video recorder, or other electronic means sent to a person identified by a unique address or address number and received by that person.

B. Cyberstalking is action of any person to accomplish any of the following:
(1) Use in electronic mail or electronic communication of any words or language threatening to inflict bodily harm to any person or to such person’s child, sibling, spouse, or dependent, or physical injury to the property of any person, or for the purpose of extorting money or other things of value from any person.

(2) Electronically mail or electronically communicate to another repeatedly, whether or not conversation ensues, for the purpose of threatening, terrifying, or harassing any person.

(3) Electronically mail or electronically communicate to another and to knowingly make any false statement concerning death, injury, illness, disfigurement, indecent conduct, or criminal conduct of the person electronically mailed or of any member of the person’s family or household with the intent to threaten, terrify, or harass.

(4) Knowingly permit an electronic communication device under the person’s control to be used for the taking of an action in Paragraph (1), (2), or (3) of this Subsection.

C.(1) Whoever commits the crime of cyberstalking shall be fined not more than two thousand dollars, or imprisoned for not more than one year, or both.

(2) Upon a second conviction occurring within seven years of the prior conviction for cyberstalking, the offender shall be imprisoned for not less than one hundred and eighty days and not more than three years, and may be fined not more than five thousand dollars, or both.

(3) Upon a third or subsequent conviction occurring within seven years of a prior conviction for stalking, the offender shall be imprisoned for not less than two years and not more than five years and may be fined not more than five thousand dollars, or both.

(4)(a) In addition, the court shall order that the personal property used in the commission of the offense shall be seized and impounded, and after conviction, sold at public sale or public auction by the district attorney in accordance with R.S. 15:539.1.

(b) The personal property made subject to seizure and sale pursuant to Subparagraph (a) of this Paragraph may include, but shall not be limited to, electronic communication devices, computers, computer related equipment, motor vehicles, photographic equipment used to record or create still or moving visual images of the victim that are recorded on paper, film, video tape, disc, or any other type of digital recording media.

D. Any offense under this Section committed by the use of electronic mail or electronic communication may be deemed to have been committed where the electronic mail or electronic communication was originally sent, originally received, or originally viewed by any person.

E. This Section does not apply to any peaceable, nonviolent, or nonthreatening activity intended to express political views or to provide lawful information to others.

White-collar crime refers to financially motivated nonviolent crime committed by business and government professionals. Within criminology, it was first defined by sociologist Edwin Sutherland in 1939 as “a crime committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation.” Typical white-collar crimes include fraud, bribery, Ponzi schemes, insider trading, embezzlement, cybercrime, copyright infringement, money laundering, identify theft, and forgery.